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-aris
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-aris/a:rɪs/ is an unproductive non-native cohering stress-bearing suffix (stress on the first syllable of the suffix) found in nouns of common gender denoting person's names, based on non-native stems and bound forms, e.g. bibliothecarislibrarian (< bibliotheeklibrary) and jubilarisperson celebrating their jubilee (cf. jubileumanniversary). Plural forms of -aris formations are in -en (bibliothecarissenlibrarians); feminine counterparts are usually not morphologically marked, occasionally with the suffix -esse replacing the -is part of the original suffix, e.g. bibliothecaressefemale librarian.

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-aris/a:rɪs/ is an unproductive non-native suffix. It is found in nouns of common gender denoting person's names, based on non-native stems and bound forms. De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 223) give denominal bibliothecarislibrarian, testamentarisexecutorpenitentiariscertain kind of priest and familiarislay person living in a catholic community, whereas jubilarisperson celebrating their jubilee, notarisnotary, plagiarisplagiarist, commissariscommisioner, secretarissecretary, functionarisfunctionary and vicarisvicar are mentioned as based on stems. Several of these words are extremely rare; some, such as testamentarisexecutor, are mainly used in Belgian Dutch. In the Dutch Spoken Corpus CGN we also found forms like interimarisplaceholder and mandatarismandatary that likewise seem to be restricted to the Southern part of the language area, possibly influenced by French.

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(De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 223) claim that an allomorph-onaris is found in functionarisfunctionary (cf. functiefunction), missionarismissionary (cf. missiemission) and other words based on bases ending in unstressed -ie, but an analysis which assumes stem allomorphy (function etc.) seems to be more insightful, given that we can distinguish the same element in other derivations such as functionerento function and functioneelfunctional.

Salarissalary, dromedarisdromedary and inventarisinventory are not formed with the suffix.

The first syllable of the suffix -aris bears the main stress of the derivation: "archi'varisarchivist < ar'chief (note that the main stress of the base is not retained as secondary stress in the derivation); the vowel of the second syllable of the suffix may be reduced to schwa. The suffix is cohering: syllabification does not respect morpheme structure bibliothecarisbibliotheek.aris/bi-bli-jo-te-'ka-ris/librarian.

Derivations with -aris have a plural form in -en ("archi'varissenarchivists). Feminine counterparts are usually not morphologically marked, occasionally one finds the suffix -esse replacing the -is part of the original suffix, e.g. bibliothecaressefemale librarian. Diminutive formation is in -je (archivarisjepetty archivist), compounding is quite common (staatssecretarisstate.s.secretarysecretary of state, notarisklerknotary clerk). -aris derivations will rarely enter into new derivations: perhaps the suffix -schap (staatssecretarisschapstate-secretaryship is attested) but often there are lexicalized non-native paradigmatic alternatives in -iaat, such as secretariaatsecretariat, secretaryship.

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The discussion of the formation of female personal nouns in Booij (2002:102) can be read in such a way that it is claimed that all -aris formations have a feminine counterpart in -aresse but that is not correct: *archivaresse and *commissaresse are not acceptable. Secretaressefemale secretary, typist has undergone meaning specialisation in such a way that the female counterpart of a secretaris is usually called vrouwelijke secretarisfemale secretary, whereas male typists can refered to with the female form secretaresse.

References:
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
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