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eks-
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The prefix eks- creates nouns on the basis of other nouns. Derivations with eks- denote persons who had the profession, the position or the dignity named by the base word, much the same as we see with the prefix âld-. The prefixes have a slightly different meaning, however. Ald- is used to express a natural transition, while eks- is used for a more traumatic change. Therefore one speaks of eks-man/frouex-husband/wife instead of *âld-man/frouformer husband/wife.

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[+] General properties

The prefix eks- derives from Latin ex. Derivations with this prefix denote persons who had the profession, the position or the dignity named by the base. Hence, the semantics is predicative: an eks-foarsitter is not a kind of chairman, but someone who is not a chairman any longer. This is reflected in the orthography by a hyphen between the prefix and the nominal base.

The prefixes âld- and eks- share many functions and characteristics, but have a slightly different meaning. Ald- is used to express a natural transition, while eks- is used for a more traumatic change. Examples of derivations with eks- are listed below.

Table 1
Base form Derivation
man/frouhusband/wife eks-man/frouex-husband/wife
feint/faamboyfriend/girlfriend eks-feint/faamex-boyfriend/girlfriend
foarsitterchairman eks-foarsitterex-chairman
wurknimmeremployee eks-wurknimmerex-employee

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x
A case of degrammaticalization

A recent development is that eksex can be found as an independent lexical item referring to one's former partner. An example is:

Example 1

Sy kaam juster har eks tsjin
She came yesterday her ex against
She ran into her ex yesterday
[+] Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [ɛks]. The stress in the derivations can either be on the prefix (EKS-manex-husband) or on the base, as in eks-MANex-husband. In the latter case the prefix also gets strong prominence, comparable with the prefixes âld- and net-, which also show predicative semantics.

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x
Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:66-67) and Veen (1984-2011:eks-).

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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:66-67) and Veen (1984-2011:eks-).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Veen, Klaas F. van der et al1984-2011Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal - Woordenboek der Friese taalFryske Akademy
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