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yn-
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There are two prefixes yn-, which, apart from spelling and pronunciation [in] and taking an adjectival base, have nothing in common.

The one prefix yn- is related to the native preposition ynin. It has an intensifying function.. Examples are blankwhite > ynblankvery white and bliidhappy > ynbliidintensely happy.

The other prefix yn- has a from Latin or French origin. Its function is negative. It can be added to non-native adjectival bases to form adjectives which refer to the opposite of the base form. Examples are adekwaatsufficient > ynadekwaatinsufficient and toleranttolerant > yntolerantintolerant.

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[+] Intensifying function

The native intensifying prefix yn- derives adjectives on the basis of another adjective. It is related to the native preposition ynin. Examples are given in the table below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
djipdeep yndjipvery deep
Fryskfrisian ynfrysktypical frisian
frompious ynfromprofoundly pious
goedgood yngoedexcellent
golgenerous yngolvery generous
griengreen yngriencompletely green
kâldcold ynkâldextremely cold
leafsweet ynleafvery sweet
sêdsatisfied ynsêdcompletely satisfied
slûchsleepy ynslûchextremely sleepy
sûnhealthy ynsûnvery healthy
swietsweet ynswietvery sweet
wurchtired ynwurchvery tired
wytwhite ynwytcompletely white

Derivations with the prefix yn-/in-/ receive a strong primary stress on the prefix: YNdjip, YNswiet, YNwyt. The final /n/ of the prefix is subject to sandhi-phenomena as assimilation and nasalization.

As is the case with other intensifying prefixes, the effect of intensification can be reinforced by reduplication. In order to achieve this, both instances of yn- have to be concatenated by the conjunction enand, for example in yn-en-yn-wytextremely white, although most often the historical form ende is preferred. We then get formations like yn-ende-yn-wytextremely white, yn-ende-yn-leafextremely sweet, etc.

[+] Negative function

The second prefix yn- is non-native, descending from Latin or French in-. It can only be added to non-native adjectival base forms. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 2
Base form Derivation
adekwaatadequate ynadekwaatinadequate
toleranttolerant yntolerantintolerant
kapabelcapable ynkapabelincompetent
produktyfproductive ymproduktyfunproductive
mobylmobile ymmobylimmobile
legaallegal yllegaalillegal
relevantrelevant yrrelevantirrelevant
The prefix has a few allomorphs. Before labials this is ym-, as is ymproduktyf and ymmobyl. We see the allomorph yl- before /l/, as in yllegaal. The allomorph before /r/ is yr-, for example in yrrelevant.

To a certain extent, the negative prefix yn - is in competition with the native negative prefix ûn-, which can attach to native and non-native base forms as well. The prefixed forms with yn- are often loaned in their entirety; see also what has been remarked with respect to negative a-.

The stress pattern of the negative prefix is completely different from intensifying yn-. Here, after adding the prefix the stress remains on the base form, for example yntoleRANT, ynkaPAbel, ymmoBYL and yrreleVANT.

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x
Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:72) for intensifying yn-, and on Hoekstra (1998:78) with respect to the negative derivations.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:72) for intensifying yn-, and on Hoekstra (1998:78) with respect to the negative derivations.

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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