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Verbs of indirect perception
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Some verbs imply perception without being derived from a verb of perception, by providing an evaluative judgment about an object or a state of affairs. An example is given below:

Example 1

De spjirren bylkje moai mei har frisse kleuren
the pines shine beautiful with their fresh colours
The pines provide a beautiful picture with their fresh colours

Such verbs may also be used as evidentials:

Example 2

Syn wurden bylkje moai
his words shine beautiful
His words are beautiful from the outside

Evidential verbs of indirect perception are all intransitive: a Noun Phrase (NP) bearing the role of theme occurs in the subject position. These constructions can be analysed as copular constructions requiring an evaluative adjective.

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Some verbs imply perception without being derived from a verb of perception, by providing an evaluative judgment about an object or a state of affairs. The perception implied may be visual or auditory, but the visual or auditory aspect is not present in the actual evidential usage of the verb. The evaluative judgment is expressed in an Adjective Phrase (AP). The verb itself may carry a positive evaluative meaning in case an evaluative AP is absent, but this is a matter of lexical idiosyncrasy. A minimal pair is provided below:

Example 3

a. De spjirren bylkje moai mei har frisse kleuren
the pines shine beautiful with their fresh colours
The pines provide a beautiful picture with their fresh colours
b. De spjirren bylkje mei har frisse kleuren
the pines shine with their fresh colours
The pines shine a beautiful picture with their fresh colours

This verb implies or entails visual perception rather than asserting it. The verb itself presumably derives from the noun byldimage. The visual aspect may be completely absent, as in the following example:

Example 4

Syn wurden bylkje tige
his words shine quite
He uses big words

The verb tekenje, which literally means draw, can come to mean point to or become (chiefly) visible, so it is also a verb implying perception. An example of this verb is provided in (5), in which negation is used to assert the incorrectness of an evaluation. Furthermore, the evaluation is not ethical or esthetic, but qualitative. Correspondingly, the evaluation itself is not expressed as an AP, but as an NP:

Example 5

Dat tekenet gjin weemoed
that draws no melancholy
That does not point to melancholy

This sentence does not have a passive equivalent:

Example 6

*Gjin weemoed is dêrtroch tekene
no melancholy is R.by pointed.to
No melancholy is pointed to

The verb is only exceptionally accompanied by an evaluative AP, as in the first example below, or by a non-evaluative, qualitative AP, as in the second example:

Example 7

a. Nammers it tekenet no al net min
for it draws now already not bad
For things are beginning to look well
b. Sa'n dei oft alles sterker ropt en skerper tekenet
such.a day as.if everything louder calls and sharper draws
Such a day as if all things call out more loudly and are more strongly visible

The verb wizepoint is likewise an evidential verb which implies perception. The perception implied may, but need not be visual:

Example 8

Wat se earder seinen, dat wiisde al oars
what they earlier said that pointed DcP different
That is different from what they said earlier

A verb of indirect perception can also be auditory in origin, as in the case of hjitte or hitebe called, command, promise, which is shown below:

Example 9

Mar mei de boerinne hjitte it raar, doe't har soan oppakt wie
but with the farmer's.wife was.called it extreme when her son arrested was
But the farmer's wife was terribly upset, when her son had been arrested

The same applies to sizzesay:

Example 10

Wigle hie kerbyt, soks sei bêst
Wigle had carbid such said best
Wigle had carbid, which was a telling prospect

The following example involves a reflexive construction:

Example 11

It waar jout him goed oan
the weather gives him good to
The weather looks promising
References:
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