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-voud
quickinfo

The suffix -voud/vAUd/ is a non-cohering native suffix creating countable nouns of neuter gender from cardinal numerals, such as vijfvoud[[vijf](NUM)[-voud]](N)pentuple. Plurals are in -en (vijfvouden/vEIf.'vAU.də(n)/pentuples). The general meaning is something with the cardinality of the base cardinal.

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[+] Input conditions

The Germanic suffix -voud is used to create nouns from cardinal numbers, e.g. vijfvoud[[vijf](NUM)[-voud]](N)pentuple(Smessaert 2013:51). Being of neuter gender, -voud formations select the definite singular article het. The suffix may yield an infinite number of formations, given that the series of cardinals is infinite: drievoudtriplicate, vijfvoud5-fold5-tuple, honderdvoud100-fold100-tuple, tweemiljoenvoud2-million-tuple, etc.

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x

The suffix ultimately derives from the verb vouwento fold. One of the first formation with -voud, meervoudplural was coined by sixteenth century grammarians (1584) as a translation of Latin pluralisplural(Van der Sijs 2010). eenvoud1-foldsimplicity is exceptional in that it is of common gender, selecting the definite article de. It is probably a back formation from older eenvoudigsimple.

[+] Inflectional properties

Plurals of -voud formations are in -en, when semantically applicable:viervouden[[[4](NUM)[voud](AFF)](N)[en](PL)](N-PL)/'vi:r.''vAU.dən/quadruples.

[+] Semantics

The general meaning of formations with -voud is something with the cardinality of the base cardinal, as illustrated below:

Example 1

We moeten de aanvraag in tweevoud indienen
we must the request in duplicate in-hand
we must submit the application in duplicate
Example 2

Een viervoud is een getal dat deelbaar is door vier
A fourfold is a number that divisible is by four
A quadruple is a number which is divisible by four

Formations with -voud quite often occur in floating quantifier constructions with the preposition in X-voud, as exemplified in example (1) above.

There is a number of special cases on the basis of special (indefinite) numerals, whose meaning is not completely transparent: eenvoud1-foldsimplicity, enkelvoudonly-foldsingular, meervoudmore-foldplural, plurality, veelvoudmany-foldmultiple, as in In de wiskunde is een veelvoud van een geheel getal een product van dat gehele getal met een ander geheel getalIn the mathematics is a multiple of a whole number a product of that whole number with an other whole numberIn mathematics, a multiple of an integer is the product of that integer with another integer.

[+] Phonological properties

In formations with -voud, stress is on the numeral base, -voud bears secondary stress. The suffix is realised as /vAUt/, with a voiceless final consonant because of final devoicing, but the consonant is voiced /d/ underlyingly, as can be seen in the plural form. -voud is non-cohering, syllabification respects the morpheme boundary.

[+] Morphological potential

Formations with -voud can be input to adjective formation with the suffix -ig, e.g. tweevoudig[[[two](Num)[-voud](Aff)](N)[-ig](Aff)](A)twofold. Diminutive formation (tweevoudjetwee-voud-DIM, enkelvoudjeonly-voud-DIM) is possible and uses predictably the allomorph je-, but is often semantically odd.

References:
  • Sijs, Nicoline van der2010Etymologiebank, http://etymologiebank.nl/
  • Smessaert, Hans2013Basisbegrippen morfologieBasisbegrippen taalkundeLeuven/Den HaagACCO
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