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-schap (het)

The Germanic suffix -schap[sχαp] combines productively with nouns referring to persons. It is non-cohering and bears secondary stress. The result is abstract neuter nouns, selecting the neuter definite singular article het.


the function of being N

Table 1
base -schap derivation
moedermother moederschapbeing a mother, motherhood
martelaarmartyr martelaarschapmartyrdom
kandidaatcandidate kandidaatschapcandidacy
hogepriesterpontiff hogepriesterschaphigh priesthood
agentagent agentschapagency

There is also a non-productive subtype of -schap formations denoting industries and administrative units, e.g. waterschapwaterboard.

[+] General information

Note that Dutch also has an unproductive affix -schap, creating nouns of common gender such as broederschapfraternity from nouns and zwangerschappregnancy from adjectives. Historically, both affixes go back to one affix, which derives from a female noun related to modern scheppento create as a righthand compound part (see Etymologiebank).

[+] Morphosyntactic properties

The Germanic suffix -schap[sχαp] forms nouns of neuter gender from nouns denoting person names. They take the neuter definite singular article het.

There is a (non-productive) subtype of -schap formations denoting industries and administrative units. In this case, input is names of things. Cases in point are hoogheemraadschapWater Board, waterschapWater Board and genootschapsociety.

[hide extra information]

Exceptional are the lexicalized juridical terms vennootschapcompany and maatschappartnership, because they are of common gender, taking the singular definite article de(De Haas and Trommelen 1993:251).

To complicate matters even more, Dutch also has a neuter noun schapshelf that can occur in compound nouns. A string such as winkelschap, then, can theoretically be parsed both as a compound [[winkel](N)[schap](N)](N)shopshelf and as a derivation [[winkel](N)[-schap]suff](N)shop union.

[+] Phonological properties

The suffix -schap[sχαp] is a non-cohering suffix. -schap suffixation respects the stress pattern of the base word, the suffix bears secondary stress.

[+] Input restrictions

Productive -schap can take simplex or complex, Germanic or foreign nouns denoting personal nouns.

Table 2
base -schap formation
moederN (Germanic)mother moederschapbeing a brother, motherhood
ministerN (foreign)minister (political function) ministerschapbeing a minster
leiderleid.er N (Germanic)leader leiderschapleadership
docentdoc.ent N (foreign)teacher docentschaplectureship, teaching position
hoogleraarhoog.[ler.aar] N (Germanic)professor hoogleraarschapprofessorship

-schap does not attach to derivations formed with female person name suffixes (-ster, -in etc.), with Germanic suffixes -erd, -erik, -e, nor with a number of non-native suffixes such as -arius, -icus and -ist.

[+] Semantic properties

The general meaning of -schap derivations is ‘the function of being N’.

[+] Inflectional properties

Due to their abstract meaning, many -schap formations do not have a plural, but if applicable, the plural is in -en, e.g. genootschappensocieties, docentschappenteaching jobs.

[+] Morphological potential

Some -schap formations have a diminutive form in (regular) -je: docentschapjedocent-schap-jesmall teaching position, genootschapjesmall society. Apart from that, derivations with productive -schap cannot be input to new derivational processes.

[hide extra information]

There are a few neuter -schap formations that can be turned into an adjective by means of the suffix -elijk, e.g. lexicalized landschaplandscape > landschappelijkas regards the landscape and bondgenootschapalliance > bondgenootschappelijkallied; the resulting adjectives have a relational semantics which has implications for various morphological and syntactic properties: no predicative use, no comparatives or superlatives, no or rarely on- prefixation.

(het) heerschapgentleman (< heergentleman (usually depreciatory)) has an exceptional semantics.

The noun gereedschaptool, tools may be derived from the adjective gereedready but it is exceptional because the relationship to the base adjective is opaque, it would be the only de-adjectival -schap derivation with a concrete semantics, and it is of neuter gender.

-schap (as found e.g, in landbouwschapagricultural board) has developed into an independent noun with the meaning 'trade organization, industrial board', possibly a case of degrammaticalisation.

  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
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