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Unergative and unaccusative subjects and the auxiliary of the perfect
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In case a verb takes only one argument, this argument is always realised as the subject in the sense that it exhibits agreement with the tensed verb:

Example 1

a. De jongfeinten laken
the lad.PL laughed.PL
The lads laughed
b. De jongfeinten stroffelen
the lad.PL stumble.PL
The lads stumbled

The relation of a verb with its subject correlates to some extent with the meaning of the verb. A basic distinction is between unergative verbs (and unergative subjects), and unaccusative verbs (and unaccusative subjects). Unergative subjects prototypically bear the semantic role of active participant, as in the first example above; the event of laughing is presented as an activity involving a (relatively) active participant. Unaccusative subjects prototypically bear the semantic role of theme or more passive participant, as in the second example above; the event of stumbling is presented as a process involving a (relatively) passive participant.

The classification of a verb as either unaccusative or unergative partly correlates partially with the choice of auxiliary of the perfect. Unergative verbs select hawwehave as the auxiliary of the perfect tense, whereas unaccusative verbs select wêzebe as the auxiliary of the perfect. Activity verbs choose their auxiliary of the perfect depending on whether they denote a change of topical location or not. The choice of auxiliary of the perfect seems to be free for wêzebe, but modal verbs consistently select hawwehave. Hawwehave can, with more or less success, be used as the auxiliary of the perfect in counterfactual contexts for all verbs, including unaccusative verbs, which normally select wêzebe. Some transitive verbs may switch their argument frame.

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More details about the unergative and unaccusative subjects and the auxiliary of the perfect can be found by following the corresponding links:

References:
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