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The semi-resumptive question phrase construction
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The semi-resumptive question phrase construction has the unmarked question phrase watwhat in the superordinate clause and the semantic question phrase in the embedded clause. An example is given below:

Example 1

Wat tinkst wa ik sjoen ha?
what think.2SG who I seen have
Who do you think that I have seen?
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The semi-resumptive question phrase construction is insensitive to the nature of the wh-phrase in the embedded clause. It is not the case that the examples are best if the questioned constituent contains a wh-word and nothing else: the following sounds quite well, in which the unmarked question phrase doubles the complete phrase wat foar boekenwhat kind of books:

Example 2

a. Wat tinkst wat foar boeken (as) ik sjoen ha?
what think.2SG what for books if I seen have
What kind of books do you think that I have seen?
b. *Wat foar boeken tinkst wat foar boeken ik sjoen ha?
what for books think.2SG what for books I seen have
What kind of books do you think that I have seen?

A possessor phrase can likewise be doubled by watwhat in the superordinate clause:

Example 3

Wat tinkst wa syn hynder (as) ik sjoen ha?
what think.2SG who his horse if I seen have
Whose horse do you think that I have seen?

Adposition Phrases (PPs) are likewise allowed, as is clear from the example below:

Example 4

Wat tinkst mei wa (as) ik praat ha?
what think.2SG with whom if I talked have
With whom do you think that I talked?

Embedded clauses in the form of a V2 clause can enter the semi-resumptive question phrase construction:

Example 5

a. Wat tinkst wa ha ik sjoen?
what think.2SG who have I seen
Who do you think that I have seen?
b. Wat tinkst wat foar boeken haw ik sjoen?
what think.2SG what for books have I seen
What kind of books do you think that I have seen?
c. Wat tinkst wa syn hynder ha ik sjoen?
wat think.2SG who his horse have I seen
Whose horse do you think that I have seen?

Topicalisation can also enter the semi-resumptive construction:

Example 6

a. Dat hie ik net tocht datst dy dêr moetsje soest
that.NG had I not thought that.2SG that.CG there meet would.2SG
Him, I had not thought that you would meet him
b. Dat hie ik net tocht datst dy jonge dêr moetsje soest
that.NG had I not thought that.2SG that.CG boy there meet would.2SG
That boy, I had not thought that you would meet him

It is possible to have V2 in the embedded clause, as in (7), with the topic pronun at the beginning of the embedded clause. The intonation contour identifies the two clauses as belonging to one utterance:

Example 7

?Dat hie ik net tocht, dy soest dêr moetsje
that had I not thought that would.2SG there meet
Him, I had not thought that you would meet him

Semi-resumptive question formation is on a par with semi-resumptive topicalisation. Both are allowed in Verb-Final and Verb-Second constructions. Semi-resumptive topicalisation does not sound well with an embedded V1 clause:

Example 8

*Dat.NG hie ik net tocht, soest dy.CG dêr moetsje
that had I not thought would.2SG that there meet
Him, I had not thought that you would meet him

Needless to say, these first explorations merit further investigation.

References:
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