• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Extraction
quickinfo

It is not possible to extract out of a V2, regardless of whether the extraction involves a referential element or a quantifier. Extraction becomes possible, however, in case the V2 is turned into a V1.

readmore

Question formation cannot target a V2, as shown below:

Example 1

a. Hy sei, hy hie de keamersdoar juster ferve
he said he had the room.door yesterday painted
He said that he had painted the door of the room yesterday
b. *Wat sei er hy hie - juster ferve?
what said he he had yesterday painted
What did he say that he had painted yesterday?

Similarly, topicalisation of a referential Noun Phrase (NP) cannot target a CV2, as shown below:

Example 2

*De keamersdoar sei er dat hy hie - juster ferve
the room.doar said he that he had yesterday painted
The doar of the room, he said that he had painted yesterday

However, extraction is grammatical in case the V2 is turned into a V1, as is illustrated below for question formation:

Example 3

Wat sei hy hie hy - juster ferve?
what said he had he yesterday painted
What did he say that he had painted yesterday?

It is illustrated below for topicalisation of a referential NP:

Example 4

De keamersdoar sei er hie er - juster ferve
the room.door said he had he had yesterday painted
The door of the room, he said that he had painted yesterday

This seems to indicate that V1 clauses are fully integrated into the superordinate structure in which they occur, provided the V1 clause is a complement to a verb of expression. V2 clauses, in contrast, are less fully integrated, since they allow bound variable binding, but not extraction. It is not the case that V1 clauses in general allow extraction; V1 clauses of irrealis do not allow extraction:

Example 5

a. Hy gyng oan as hied er in murd te pakken
he went on as had he a fitch to catch
He screamed as if he had caught a fitch
b. *Wat gyng er oan as hied er te pakken?
what went he on as had he to catch
What did he go on as if he had caught?
c. It like wol as hied er in murd te pakken
it seemed DcP as had he a fitch to catch
It seemed as if he had caught a fitch
d. *Wat like it wol as hied er te pakken?
what seemed it DcP as had he to catch
What did it seem as if he had caught?

This conclusion holds regardless of whether the irrealis clause is a verbal argument or not. Similarly, V1 clauses do not allow extraction in case they express the effect of a degree:

Example 6

a. Hy wie sa kâld dat hy liet syn kaaien falle
he was so cold that he let his keys fall
He was so cold that he dropped his keys
b. *Wat wie er sa kâld liet er falle?
what was he so cold let he fall
Lit: What was he so cold that he dropped?
References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Extraction
      [74%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Embedded Verb Second > Verb-second in embedded clauses > Linearity and referentiality
    • Referentiality versus quantification
      [68%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Embedded Verb Second > Verb-second in embedded clauses > Linearity and referentiality
    • No NP-complements
      [65%] Frisian > Syntax > Adposition Phrases > Complementation > Postpositions + simple complements > No complements to postpositions
    • Interpretation
      [62%] Frisian > Syntax > Nouns & Noun Phrases > Modification > Relative clauses > Types: restrictive & non-restrictive
    • Direct and indirect speech following the marker fan 'like'
      [62%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Embedded Verb Second > Verb-second in embedded clauses (NCV2s)
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print