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Direct and indirect speech
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Direct speech involves the supposedly literal quotation of what a person said, as in the following example:

Example 1

'Wike en ik gean wol mei de bus,' sei mem grimmitich
Wike and I go DcP with the bus said mother grimly
'Wike and I will go by bus', mother said grimly

Indirect speech involves a representation of what a person said that is not literal:

Example 2

Se krige jûn besite, sei se
she got tonight visit said she
She had visitors tonight, she said
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Direct speech may also refer to inner speech, that is, to thoughts, as long as those thoughts are expressed verbally. Direct speech involves the supposedly literal quotation of what a person said, as in the following example:

Example 3

'Sjochst der lekker út,' sei er en knypte my
see.2sG R tastily out said he and pinched me
'You look smashing,' he said and pinched me

Direct speech is only partly integrated within the superordinate clause in which it occurs. It is integrated as far as it concerns verb-second and the assignment of thematic roles, that is, direct speech triggers verb-second and the direct speech fragment is assigned a thematic role by the verb seisaid. However, direct speech is independent of its superordinate clause with respect to choice of pronouns and choice of tense marking on the tensed verb. When direct speech is converted to indirect speech, it becomes more fully integrated in the superordinate clause selected by the verb of reporting. Its choice of pronouns and of tense marking become in part dependent on the choice of pronouns and tense marking of the superordinate clause. Depending on the construction type, there may be further syntactic integration, which is visible from phenomena such as bound variable binding and long question formation (long movement).

References:
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