• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Complex onset: sequences of obstruents and nasals

Word-initial sequences of an obstruent followed by a nasal yield onsets which are at odds with the Complex Onset Sonority Constraint (see complex onsets), which forces the obstruent to remain extra-syllabic. This is confirmed by how these sequences are syllabified in word-internal position. As to this, obstruent-nasal sequences are contrasted with obstruent-liquid sequences, which show a markedly different behaviour. Most word-initial obstruent-nasal sequences contain the unmarked coronal nasal /n/; some aspects of these sequences are worth noticing.


The table below lists examples of words with an initial obstruent-nasal sequence:

Table 1
sn- snyl/snil/ligulate leaf (especially of the ree mace), snoad/snoəd/bright, clever, snaffel/snafəl/bill, rostrum
sm- smak/smak/crash, smack, smei(e)/smaj/to forge, to smith, smjunt/smjønt/wigeon, skunk, rascal
kn- knars(e)/knas/to crunch, to grind, kneppel/knɛpəl/club, cudgel, in knoarre (jild)/knwarə/a lot (of money)
gn- gnau/ɡnɔw/bite, chew, gnodze/ɡnodzə/gnarl, knur(r), gnúsk(je)/gnysk/to do all kinds of odd jobs, chores
fn- fnask(je)/fnɔsk/to chew (especially fruit, carrots, turnips), fnasseltsje/fnɔsəl+tsjə/-fni(s)seltsje/fn{ɪ/i}səl+tsjə/-fnitteltsje/fnɪtəl+tsjə/tiny piece, fniez(e)/fniəz/to sneeze, fn(j)it (hawwe mei)/fn(j)ɪt/(to be) pleased (with), fnittel(je)/fnɪtəl/to trifle, to dwadle (an exhaustive list)
The above sequences yield onsets which are at odds with the Complex Onset Sonority Constraint (see: complex onsets), for obstruents and nasals belong to adjacent sonority classes. Such onsets are universally more marked than those of an obstruent and a liquid. In his 37th (implicational) universal, (Greenberg 1978:264) states: In initial systems the existence of at least one cluster consisting of obstruent + nasal implies the existence of at least one cluster consisting of obstruent + liquid. The Frisian facts are in line with this universal.

The Complex Onset Sonority Constraint forces the obstruent in initial obstruent-nasal sequences to remain extra-syllabic (see extra-syllabic consonants). This is confirmed by how these sequences are syllabified when they are in word-internal position, where they are flanked by a full vowel on either side. They appear not to constitute the onset of a syllable, as shown in the table below:

Table 2
The syllabification of word-internal obstruent-nasal sequences
Hosni/hɔsni//(hɔs).(ni)./proper noun
Hofni/hɔfni//(hɔf).(ni)./proper noun
In the same word-internal configuration, however, obstruent-liquid sequences do constitute syllable onsets, as exemplified in the table below:
Table 3
The syllabification of word-internal obstruent-liquid sequences
Hebron/he:bron//(he:).(bron)./place name
sekreet/sɪkre:t//(sə).(kre:t)./bitch, sow
The above sequences of obstruent + liquid are in the onset. This is clearly shown by the word sigretcigarette , which has the velar plosive /ɡ/, the occurrence of which is restricted to the word-initial position and the beginning of a word-medial stressed syllable (see: the obstruents: the plosives). Also, the vowel schwa prefers to occur in an open syllable (see: schwa), which links up with the syllabification /(sə).(kre:t)./ of the word sekreetbitch, sow.

Only a limited number of the logically possible obstruent-nasal sequences is actually attested: /sn-/, /sm-/, /kn-/, /ɡn-/, and /fn-/. With the exception of /sn-/, they are heterorganic. Word-finally, the mirror image sequences of a nasal and an obstruent must be homorganic (see word-final clusters of a nasal and an obstruent). This is an onset-coda asymmetry. It should be noted in this respect that /-k/, in tank/taŋk/thanks, gratitude, for instance, is an integral part of the syllable (rhyme), but that it is an extra-syllabic consonant in a word like knau/knɔw/bite, chew; blow.

It is striking that most of these exceptional sequences contain the coronal nasal /n/. Sequences with the velar nasal are excluded, because /ŋ/ is not allowed in word-initial position (see the dorsal nasal /ŋ/). But though the labial nasal /m/ is allowed word-initially, sequences of obstruent plus /m/ do not occur (save /sm-/). In all likelihood, this has to do with the unmarked status of /n/. We are faced with the paradoxical situation that a marked consonant sequence must be made up of unmarked segments.

Several aspects of these marked sequences are worth noticing:

  • Most forms with /ɡn-/ have a variant with /kn-/,  so there are pairs like gnap ~ knappretty, good-looking, gnypsk ~ knypsksneaky, sly, gnúsk(je) ~ knúsk(je)to do all kinds of odd jobs, chores.
  • There are also some marginal cases of word-initial obstruent-nasal sequences. Heterorganic /pn-/ only occurs in loan words, like pneumatyskpneumatical, and Biblical names, like Pniël. The homorganic sequence [pm-] may occur in a shortened form of pûnsmiet/pu:n+s#mjɪt/[pũ:zmjɪt]name of a certain square measure (3600 square meters), pronounced as [pmjɪt], with a closed transition between [p] and [m]. Otherwise, /pm-/ is not allowed.
  • Just like the initial sequences of an obstruent and a nasal, those of a nasal and a liquid, viz. /nl-/, /nr-/, /ml-/, and /mr-/, belong to adjacent sonority classes. Yet, some of the former occur in word-initial position, whereas none of the latter do. Nasal consonants do not seem to be able to qualify as extra-syllabic (see extra-syllabic consonants).
  • Though the sequences /dn-/ and /tn-/ are not allowed in word-initial position, they do occur in complex words at the beginning of an unstressed word-medial syllable, as in widner/vɪd+nər//(vɪ).(dnər)./widower, moardner/mwad+nər//(mwa).(dnər)./murderer, byltnis/bild+nɪs//(bil).(tnɪs)./portrait, likeness, partner/(pa:).(tnər)./partner. The syllabification /(vɪd).(nər)./ and /(pa:t).(nər)./ yields a bad syllable contact (see onset: sequences of obstruents and liquids ). The contact in /(vɪ).(dnər)./ and /(pa:).(tnər)./ is fine, whereas the initial clusters /dn-/ and /tn-/ are also in line with the Sonority Sequencing Constraint (see complex onsets).
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • In prenominal position
      [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
    • Weak verbs
      [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • -s
      [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Noun as base
    • Quantifiers
      [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
    • Cardinal numbers
      [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
    Show more ▼
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Ing-nominalization
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    • Ge-nominalization
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    • Preface and acknowledgments
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Preface and acknowledgements
    • Simple and compound forms
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 6 Numerals and quantifiers > 6.1. Numerals > 6.1.1. Cardinal numerals
    • 1.2.5. Circumpositions
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Adpositions and adpositional phrases > 1 Characteristics and classification > 1.2. A formal classification of adpositional phrases
    Show more ▼