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The relevance of the distinction between short and long vowels for the size of the rhyme
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Indirectly, the Word Constraint alludes to the phonological distinction between short and long vowels. In simplex words, a long vowel can be followed by maximally one (non-coronal) word-final consonant, a short vowel by maximally two. For instance, the word skulp/skølp/shell, with a short vowel, is well-formed, whereas skeulp/skø:lp/ is not. The latter has a four-positional rhyme, which is too long.

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The phonological distinction between short and long vowels (see long and short monophthongs) is referred to by the Word Constraint, albeit in an indirect way. In a word, a long vowel can be followed by maximally one (non-coronal) consonant, a short vowel by maximally two. The words in (1) below, for instance, are all right:

Example 1

Examples of final consonants and consonant sequences in words with a long and a short vowel
a. Words with a long vowel
piip /pi:p/ pipe
skúf /sky:v/ bolt; slide
fûl /fu:l/ fiery; set (of an egg)
keel /ke:l/ throat
neef /ne:v/ cousin
boom /bo:m/ bottom
liep /liəp/ cunning
weak /vɪək/ soft, flaccid
haal /ha:l/ tug; stroke
glimp /ɡlɪmp/ glimpse; smile
b. Words with a short vowel
skulp /skølp/ shell
wolk /volk/ cloud
wylch /vilɣ/ willow (tree)
skûlk /skulk/ dishcloth
kalf /kɔlv/ with young, in calf
help(e) /hɛlp/ to help
wurk /vørk/ work
wurch /vørɣ/ tired
skerp /skɛrp/ sharp
skurf /skørv/ shabby, scruffy
skalm /skɔlm/ link
berm /bɛrm/ shoulder, verge

Words like the ones in (2), on the other hand, are out:

Example 2

Examples of final consonant sequences in words with a long vowel
*piilp /pi:lp/
*skúlf /sky:lv/
*fûlk /fu:lk/
*keelp /ke:lp/
*boomp /bo:mp/
*haalp /ha:lp/
*gleemp /ɡle:mp/
*skeulp /skø:lp/
*wiilch /vi:lɣ/
*skûlk /sku:lk/

In itself, the consonant sequences in which the words in (2) end are fine in word-final position, as the examples in (1b) show. The combination of these sequences with a long vowel, however, makes for a four-positional rhyme, which is at odds with the Word Constraint. The ill-formedness of the words in (2), therefore, points to the phonological relevance of both the Word Constraint and the distinction between short and long vowels.

References:
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