• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
The labial consonants
quickinfo

Labial is a cover term for both the bilabial and the labiodental way of articulation. The fricatives and oral stops show a division: the fricatives (v/f) are labiodental, the stops (b/p) are bilabial.

readmore

The term 'labial' is a cover term for both the bilabial and the labiodental way of articulation. As to this, the fricatives and oral stops show a neat division of labour, in that the fricatives (v/f) are labiodental, while the stops (b/p) are bilabial. There are no bilabial fricatives in Frisian, whereas labiodental stops seem to be universally excluded. This might be explicable on physiological grounds: compressing one's lips causes a complete obstruction of the air stream − a characteristic property of stops −, whereas bringing one's lower lip into contact with one's upper teeth leaves room for the air stream to continue, a property typical of fricatives.

[hide extra information]
x

The labiodental nasal [ɱ] does occur in Frisian, as in komfoar[koɱfoər]chafing dish and triomf[trijoɱf]triumph, and, as a syllabic segment, in moffen[mofɱ̩]gloves. It is, however, an allophone of /m/, not a phoneme.

References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Weak verbs
      [72%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • -s
      [72%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Noun as base
    • Strong and other irregular verbs
      [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • General categories
      [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • Number
      [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • 1.3. Inflection
      [71%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification
    • 2.2.3.1. Agentive er-nominalizations
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.2. Prepositional and nominal complements > 2.2.3. Deverbal nouns
    • 3.3.2. Accusative/PP alternations
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3 Projection of verb phrases II:Verb frame alternations > 3.3. Alternations of noun phrases and PPs
    • 1.2.3. Semantic classification of main verbs
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.2. Verb classifications
    • 1.3.1.4. Ge-nominalization
      [70%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print