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Forms with vowel lengthening
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Whereas Dutch stems with a (half) open short monophthong (/ɪ,ɛ,ɔ,ɑ/) may show up with a long monophthong (/e,o,a/) in inflected forms, in derivations, and when they are the left-hand member of a compound, this is not the case in Frisian. The few Frisian words which display this type of alternation are likely to be Dutch loans.

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Dutch stems with a (half) open short monophthong (/ɪ,ɛ,ɔ,ɑ/) may show up with a long monophthong (/e,o,a/) in inflected forms, in derivations, and when they are the left-hand member of a compound. In Frisian, forms with a centring diphthong/long monophthong may show up with a rising diphthong/short vowel in the same environments (see 'Broken' and 'shortened' forms). So a short vowel in Dutch remains short or it has a long vowel as its counterpart, whereas a long vocalic sequence in Frisian remains long or its counterpart is a short sequence. Frisian, however, does have a few nouns with a short vowel which have a long vowel in the plural:

Example 1

Frisian nouns with a short vowel and a long vowel in the plural
gebed /ɡəbɛd/ prayer ~ gebeden /ɡəbe:d+ən/ prayers
lid /lɪd/ member ~ leden /le:d+ən/ members
gebod /ɡəbɔd/ commandment ~ geboaden /ɡəboəd+ən/ commandments
ferbod /fərbɔd/ ban, prohibition ~ ferboaden /fərboəd+ən/ bans, prohibitions
god /ɡɔd/ god ~ goaden /ɡoəd+ən/ gods

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In older texts the 'regular' plural gebedden/ɡəbɛd+ən/prayers (and also gebetten/ɡəbɛt+ən/) can be found.

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The plural forms in (1) are old Dutch loans. Since /o:/ is not allowed to precede a dental-alveolar consonant in Frisian, the vowel /o:/ of Dutch verbodenbans and godengods is turned into the centring diphthong /oə/, hence the spelling <oa> in ferboaden and goaden.

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The long vowel also shows up in the compound allomorph in -e (see Nouns with final schwa as the left-hand member of compounds), examples of which are given below:

Table 1
gebede#boek/ɡəbe:də-/prayer book cf. geb[e:]denprayers
lede#list/le:də-/membership list cf. l[e:]denmembers
goade#wrâld/ɡoədə-/world of the gods cf. g[oə]dengods
Compare the conversion verb fergoadzjeto deify, to divinize, with /oə/, alongside fergodzjeto deify, to divinize, with /ɔ/.

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The nominalizing suffix -heid/-hid/ (see -heid, -ens, and -ichheid) has the plural allomorph -heden/-he:d+ən/ (cf. the Dutch counterpart -heid/-hɛjd/, also with the plural allomorph -heden/-he:d+ən/).

In Dutch, loan words ending in -or//ɔr/ can be pluralized with both -s and -en, so the plural forms of professorprofessor and radiatorradiator are either professors/radiators or professoren/radiatoren. With the plural ending -en, the short vowel /ɔ/ ends up in an open syllable, a context typical of vowel lengthening. Preceding /r/, the resulting long vowel /o:/ is turned into the centring diphthong /oə/. Since loan words enter Frisian through the mediation of Dutch, these plural forms are taken over with the centring diphthong. The relation between the singular and plural form of the above words can be expressed as in (2):

Example 2

Singular ~ plural relation
a. I.
gebed /ɡəbɛd/ prayer /ɡəbe:d-/
lid /lɪd/ member /le:d-/
gebod /ɡəbɔd/ commandment /ɡəboəd-/
ferbod /fərbɔd/ ban, prohibition /fərboəd-/
god /ɡɔd/ god /ɡoəd-/
b. II.
/...ɔr/ N ↔ /...oər/ N - in the /ən/ -plural

In line with what is customary, the more specific statement precedes the more general one.

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