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The suffix -liks/ləks/ derives adverbs and adjectives from nouns denoting relatively longer time spans. The relevant forms are daagliksdaily, wykliksweekly and jierliksyearly. The meaning is "(occurring) every {time span}".


It is striking that only longer time periods may form the base of the derivation. The sekondesecond, menútminute and also oerehour do not qualify (although the form uurlijkshourly exists in Dutch). Also quite long periods, like ieucentury or even milinniummilennium are not found as a base.

The suffix derives both adverbs and adjectives. The meaning contribution is distributive: "(occurring) every {time span}". An example is:

Example 1

Jierliks betelje wy 20 euro kontribúsje
yearly pay we 20 euro subscription fee
Every year we pay 20 euro's as subscription fee

However, in adverbial use an alternative expression with the quantifieralleall is preferred, as in alle jierrenall year.PLevery year. We therefore find the derivations especially attributively, for example in de jierlikse kontribúsjethe yearly-INFL subscription.feethe annual subscription fee. We see here that the adjective is normally inflected. However, for semantic reasons there are no comparative or superlative forms. Also, the adjective is not used predicatively; instead, another verb has to be used, which renders the form an adverb:

Example 2

a. *Dit blêd is wykliks
this magazine is weekly
This is a weekly magazine
b. Dit blêd ferskynt wykliks
this paper appears weekly
This paper is published every week

The derivations with -liks fail to serve as input for further derivation. However, we do find synthetic compounds with this suffix, in which the noun is combined with a numeral, as in twawyklikstwo-week-ly. For more information, see -liks in synthetic compounds.

The use of the suffix is not very frequent in Frisian. There is the competing suffix -s, or the concept is described by phrases like alle wikenevery week or de wikeper week. The form daagliksdaily may be a loan from Dutch, as the stem daag- only occurs in the (irregular) plural form of deiday. A more frequent synonym is deistichdaily, with a suffich -ich. The word jierliksyearly shows breaking.

[hide extra information]
x Adjective and adverb

It is tempting to analyze the sequence liks as consisting of the suffix -lik and the suffix -s. However, forms like *wyklik do not exist, which is the reason for considering -liks as one suffix here. The ending in -s suggests that the adverbial use might be basic. The adjectival use of adverbs ending in -s is not completely unusual, however, for instance in in ûnferwacht-s-e besitea unexpected-ADV-INFL visitan unexpected visit.

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