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Evidentials with asas

Adposition Phrases (PPs) participating in an evidential construction are characteristically formed with the word asas, as in the following example:

Example 1

Se sjogge Wietze as in held
they see Wietze as a hero
They regard Wietze as a hero

This word may be analysed as a PP, although it is not compatible with R-pronouns:

Example 2

*Der as
it.R like
Like it

It may also take Adjective Phrase (AP) complements:

Example 3

Ik sjoch dat net as ferkeard
I see that not as wrong
I do not see anything wrong in it

This PP is also used for making comparisons.


The following example involves a transitive evidential verb:

Example 4

Sy beskôgje inoar as bisten fan deselde soarte
they regard each.other as animals of the.same kind
They regard each other as animals of the same kind

The preposition foarfor may also be used in this way. It is characteristically used in a rhetorical question. Such examples typically occur with verbs of perception used as evidentials, as shown below:

Example 5

Wêr sjochst my foar oan?
what.R see.2SG me for PTC
What do you take me for?

It may also be used with negation:

Example 6

Ik sjoch de Joustra's net oan foar útkwebbelders
I see the Joustras not to for blabbermouths
I do not see the Joustras as blabbermouths

This phrase does not sound right in an affirmative sentence, which suggests that it is negatively polar:

Example 7

*Ik sjoch dy oan foar in suffert
I see you PTC for a fool
I see you as a fool

However, it may be used in affirmative sentences in case it is used to mean confuse with:

Example 8

Se sjogge dy oan foar in oar
they see you PTC for an other
They confuse you with somebody else
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