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Bare pronominal postpositional construction
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Some postpositions may take a demonstrative as their complement. The demonstrative may either have deictic reference or it may function as an anticipatory pronoun which is doubled by a Adposition Phrase (PP). When combining with the demonstrative, the postposition refers to a goal, rather than to a source:

Example 1

Hy moast dat út nei de greidhoeke
he must that out to the region.of.meadows
He had to go in the direction of the Greidhoeke
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The following postpositional construction can be used to convey the meaning that way or in that direction:

Example 2

a. Hy moast dat út nei de greidhoeke
he must that out to the region.of.meadows
He had to go in the direction of the Greidhoeke
b. Sjoukje wiisde dat út nei de keamer
Sjoukje pointed that out to the room
Sjoukje pointed in the direction of the room

The construction consists of two PPs. The first PP dat út contains a demonstrative pronoun and a postposition. The demonstrative pronoun may have discourse reference, that is, it may refer to a direction that is inferred from the preceding discourse. The demonstrative pronoun is doubled by a second PP nei de greidhoeke, turning the demonstrative pronoun effectively into a cataphor. The second PP sometimes contains the postposition tato, as shown in the example below:

Example 3

Tegearre rûnen se dat út nei it doarp ta
together walked they that out to the village to
Together they walked to the village

The demonstrative pronoun may also be accompanied by some other postposition. The following examples involve the postposition lânsalong:

Example 4

It hûs lokke mannich wurge of toarstige reizger, dy dat lâns moast
the house attracted many.a weary or thirsty traveller who that along must
The house attracted many weary or thirsty travellers, who had to go past it

In the above example, one might also have the idea that the demonstrative pronoun refers back to the house. This is hard to confirm or negate. If the demonstrative pronoun truly refers back to the house, then normally an R-pronoun would be used instead:

Example 5

It hûs lokke mannich warrige of toarstige reizger, dy dêr lâns moast
the house attracted many.a weary or thirsty traveller that.R along must
The house attracted many weary or thirsty travellers, who had to go past it

A similar example involves the postposition deloff, along, in which the demonstrative pronoun seems to refer ambiguously to either a direction or a location, although the directional reading is probably the basic one:

Example 6

Yn in omsjoch fûnen se it paad nei de grutte wei, en marsjearden dat del
in a moment found they the path to the big road and marched that down
In no time, they found the path leading to the main road and marched down it / that way

The postposition opon can also appear in this construction, in which it has roughly the same meaning as útout:

Example 7

a. De ober skoffele fuort, dat op nei de ferreinde fakânsjelju
the waiter walked off that on to the rained holiday.people
The waiter shuffled off, in the direction of the people on holiday who were wet from the rain
b. It stie efkes bûten it doarp, dat op nei it bûterfabryk
it stood DcP outside the village that on to the butter.factory
It was situated just outside the village, in the direction of the butter factory

The construction may also feature the proximal demonstrative pronoun ditthis, as in the following example:

Example 8

Avenseare Eisenhower, Churchill, jei jimme troepen dit út
hurry.up Eisenhower, Churchill hurry your troops this out
Hurry up, Eisenhower, Churchill, hurry your troops in this (our) direction

The proximal pronoun is marked as compared to the distal pronoun, which is unmarked. Correspondingly, the proximal pronoun is hardly ever doubled by a PP, although a rare example may be encountered, such as the following:

Example 9

Wel faam, moat ik dit lâns nei Ynwold ta?
well girl must I this along to Ynwold to
Well, girl, should I pass along here for Ynwold?

It has also been claimed that the pronoun can be questioned:

Example 10

Wat ried dy auto út?
what drove that car out
In which direction did that car go?

Instead of the demonstrative pronoun, the pronoun it oarethe other appears to be found in the bare postpositional construction as well, as in the following example:

Example 11

Hja holden har eigen paad: út 'e berch wei it iene om en dêr hinne it oare lâns
they kept their own path out the mountain away the one around and R.it to the other along
They kept their own path: going out of the mountain they took one path, and toward the mountain they took the other

However, this may involve a different construction. In the example below, the pronoun it oarethe other can refer to the noun path, corresponding to the following sentence:

Example 12

Hja giene dat paad lâns
they went that path along
They went along that path

Hence a common postpositional construction could be involved, which is also found in language varieties such as Dutch which lack the bare demonstrative postpositional construction. However, the pronoun it ienethe one does not refer to the noun paadpath, since the following is ungrammatical:

Example 13

*Hja giene dat paad om
they went that path along
They went along that path

However, the following sentence is grammatical, with a truly bare postpositional construction:

Example 14

Hja giene dat om
they went that along
They went along that path

Therefore the example above involves at least one and possibly two instances of the bare postpositional construction.

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More details can be found in Hoekstra (1988).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1988Dat út nei Dokkum taFriesch Dagblad02-07Taalsnipels 78
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