• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Pronouns
quickinfo

Pronouns refer to a Noun Phrase (NP) or, in some cases, to a noun. In a broad sense, this would include relative and interrogative pronouns, and the likes. In a narrow sense, it includes subject and non-subject pronouns and reflexives and reciprocals. Subject and non-subject pronouns such as ikI and myme do not exhibit uniform behaviour. Some pronouns have a strong and a weak form whereas others do not. Furthermore, the second person singular pronoun may be omitted altogether (see strong and weak pronouns). In the following example, the second person pronoun doyou has been omitted:

Example 1

Moatst wol bôle meinimme
must.2SG DcP bread along.take
You must take along bread

Possessive pronouns such as mynmy differ in some respects from subject and non-subject pronouns. For example, they do not feature a distinction between strong and weak forms (see possessive pronouns). Reflexive pronouns cannot freely refer, but they are bound in a local domain (reflexive pronouns). Consider for example the following sentence:

Example 2

Maaike tocht dat Eva harsels waskje soe
Maaike thought that Eva herself wash would
Maaike thought that Eva would wash herself

The reflexive pronoun harselsherself refers to the antecedent Eva, as it occurs in the same tensed clause as the pronoun itself. It cannot refer back to the NP Maaike, which occurs in a different clause. The reciprocal pronoun is bound in a local domain as well, but it imposes a reciprocal interpretation on its antecedent. An example is the following:

Example 3

Maaike en Eva wasken inoar
Maaike and Eva washed each.other
Maaike and Eva washed each other
References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • Mood
      [65%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
    • Root semantics
      [65%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
    • Tense
      [64%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect
    • Reported speech in Afrikaans: construction forms
      [63%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 5. Complement Clauses > 5.3. Reported speech in Afrikaans
    • Finite interrogative complement clauses: syntactic distribution
      [63%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 5. Complement Clauses > 5.2. Finite interrogative complement clauses
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print