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Complementive predicative
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Present participles which are verbal (and, as a result, have the process reading) are banned from the complementive predicative construction. The complementive predicative construction only features present participles which have been converted to adjectives.

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Predicative present participles do not exhibit agreement; predicative constructions never show agreement in Frisian. The use of present participles in a complementive predicative construction is much more restricted than the use of present participles in an attributive construction. Consider the following pairs in (1) and (2):

Example 1

a. De laitsjende feint
the smiling young.man
The smiling young man
a.' *De feint is laitsjend / laitsjende
the young.man is laughing
The young man is laughing
Example 2

a. De mei hynders pratende boerinne
the with horses talking farmer's.wife
The farmer's wife who talks with horses
a.' *De boerinne is mei hynders pratend / pratende
the famer's.wife is with horses talking
The farmer's wife is talking to the horses

In fact, present participles which are verbal (and, as a result, have the process reading) are banned from the complementive predicative construction. The complementive predicative construction features only present participles which have been converted to adjectives, and which as a result have the state reading only. The present participle oertsjûgjendconvincing is ambiguous between the two readings. If it is accompanied by an object, only the process reading is available. If the object is absent, the state reading is available, as confirmed by the test of comparative formation:

Example 3

a. In my oertsjûgjend argument
a me convincing argument
An argument that convinces me
b. *In my oertsjûgjender argument
a me more.convincing argument
A more convincing argument to me
c. In oertsjûgjend / oertsjûgjender argument
a convincing more.convincing argument
A convincing / more convincing argument

In complementive predicative position, the object must obligatorily be absent, indicating that the present participle is adjectival, not verbal, and that correspondingly comparative formation is possible:

Example 4

a. Dat argument is oertsjûgjend
that argument is convincing
That argument is convincing
b. *Dat argument is my oertsjûgjend
that argument is me convincing
That argument convinces me
c. Dat argument is oertsjûgjend-er
that argument is convincing.CPR
That argument is more convincingly

Present participles can be used to indicate the way in which a person has moved. These present participles are adjectival and they may not be expanded:

Example 5

a. Ik bin rinnende / fytsende
I am walking / bicycling
I came on foot / by bicycle
b. *Ik bin oer de haadstrjitte rinnende / fytsende
I am across the main street walking / bicycling
I came down the main street on foot / by bicycle

There are a few idiomatic expressions in which the present participle has undergone a shift in meaning so that it does not assign the subject thematic role to its argument anymore. In the example below, it assigns a locative thematic role:

Example 6

In steande resepsje
a standing reception
A reception at which one stands

To summarize: unless converted to adjectives, present participles do not occur in complementive predicative constructions.

References:
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