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Adverbial
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Present participles occur as adverbials functioning as supplementive predicatives. They need not be converted to adjectives, so, they can have the process reading.

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Present participles occur as adverbials functioning as supplementive predicatives. As such, they have the process reading, whereas they cannot have this reading as complementive predicates. They are normally marked with a schwa. Consider the following examples:

Example 1

a. Hy kaam sjongende de keamer yn
he came singing the room in
He was singing as he entered the room
b. *Hy kaam sjongend de keamer yn
he came singing the room in
He was singing as he entered the room

However, it is much more common to combine the adverbial present participle with the suffix -wei:

Example 2

a. Hy kaam sjongende-wei de keamer yn
he came singing.SUFF the room in
He was singing as he entered the room
b. *Hy kaam sjongendwei de keamer yn
he came singing.SUFF the room in
He was singing as he entered the room

The complementiser al is commonly used in front of the present participle:

Example 3

a. Hy kaam al sjongende de keamer yn
he came COMP singing the room in
He was singing as he entered the room
b. Hy kaam al sjongendewei de keamer yn
he came COMP singing.SUFF the room in
He was singing as he entered the room

However, if the present participle is accompanied by the complementiser al or the suffix -wei, then it may not be accompanied by any phrase-internal material whatsoever:

Example 4

a. Hy kaam lûd / in liet sjongende de keamer yn
he came loud / a song singing the room in
He was singing loudly / a song as he entered the room
b. *Hy kaam al lûd / in liet sjongende de keamer yn
he came COMP loud / a song singing the room in
He was singing loudly / a song as he entered the room
c. *Hy kaam lûd / in liet sjongendewei de keamer yn
he came loud / a song singing.SUFF the room in
He was singing loudly / a song as he entered the room

In fact, the complementiser al is always left-adjacent to the present participle, which suggests that it may be analysed as a prefix. Some direct objects may occur with al and -wei provided they are incorporated in the present participle, as in the following examples:

Example 5

a. Al lietsjongende
COMP song.singing
While singing a song
b. Lietsjongende-wei
song.singing.SUFF
While singing a song

Although present participles are easily used as adverbials, they are hardly ever expanded into full phrases, that is, they occur without objects, modifiers and the like.

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x Literature

More details can be found in (Hoekstra 1991).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1991Wy moatte al wat itende bliuweFriesch Dagblad26-10Taalsnipels 205
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