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Present participles
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Internally, present participles have verbal properties with respect to word order, whereas they behave as adjectives externally with respect to agreement, in the four key constructions. Present participles may be morphologically converted to adjectives. Present participles may be morphologically converted to nouns. Present participles assign the same thematic role as the one an active verb assigns to its direct object in a sentence in the active voice. There are lexical restrictions on the use of present participles in the four key constructions.

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More details about present participles can be found by following the corresponding links:

References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
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