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VP adverbs
quickinfo

VP-adverbs can usually be used in the syntactic frame that is given below, followed by an application in example (2).

Syntactic frame: enand PRONOUN doendoesditit ADVERB.

Example:

Example 1

Mell en Jeff loop haastig by die kroeg in.
Mell and Jeff walk hurriedly at the bar in
Mell and Jeff hurriedly walk into the bar.
Example 2

Mell en Jeff loop by die kroeg in en hulle doen dit haastig.
Mell and Jeff walk at the bar in and they do it hurriedly
Mell and Jeff walk into the bar and they do it in a hurry.

As in various cases discussed elsewhere, this is also an example of an adjective used adverbially.

Six subclasses of VP-adverbs can be distinguished. VP adverbs normally follow clause adverbs:

  1. Manner vinnigquickly
  2. Time vroegearly
  3. Frequency dikwelsoften
  4. Place hierhere
  5. Degree geweldigenormously
  6. Preference graageagerly
  7. Position of VP adverbs with respect to clause adverbs.

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A Manner

Manner adverbs, which constitute a large class of VP adverbs, indicate the way in which the action expressed by the verb is performed. An example is given below, followed by the VP-adverb test:

Example 3

Sy het vinnig opgestaan.
she has quickly stood.up
She got up quickly.
Example 4

Sy het opgestaan, en sy het dit vinnig gedoen.
she has stood.up, and she has it quickly done
She got up, and she did it quickly.

B Time

Time adverbs provide information about the temporal dimension of the verb. An example is given below, in which the clausal time adverb gisteraandlast.night is followed by the VP time adverb vroegearly.

Example 5

Ek het gisteraand vroeg gaan slaap.
I have last.night early go sleep
I went to bed early last night.

VP-adverb test:

Example 6

Ek het gisteraand gaan slaap en ek het dit vroeg gedoen.
I have last.night go sleep and I have it early done
I went to bed early last night, and I did it early.

Clausal adverb test:

Example 7

*Dit is vroeg so dat ek gisteraand gaan slaap het.
it is early so that I last.night go sleep have
It is early so that I went to bed last night.

C Frequency

Frequency adverbs provide information about the frequency of occurrence of events. It it not always easy to distinguish frequency adverbs from time adverbs, since such adverbs are often ambiguous between a clausal reading and a VP reading. The adverb dikwelsoften, for example, passes both the clausal test and the VP test:

Example 8

Sy lag nie dikwels oor hom nie.
she laughs not often over him PTCL.NEG
She doesn’t often laugh about him.

VP adverb test:

Example 9

Sy lag oor hom en dit doen sy nie dikwels nie.
she laughs over him and that does she not often PTCL.NEG
She laughs about him en she doesn't do so often.

Clausal adverb test:

Example 10

Dit is nie dikwels so dat sy oor hom lag nie.
it is not often so that she over him laughs PTCL.NEG
It isn’t often the case that she laughs about him.

D Place

Adverbs of place provide information about the location of the event described by the VP. These adverbs pass the VP test but not the clausal test:

Example 11

Hy hardloop gereeld daar.
he runs regularly there
He regularly runs there.

VP adverb test:

Example 12

Hy hardloop gereeld en dit doen hy daar.
he runs regularly and that does he there
He regularly runs and he does so there.

Clausal adverb test:

Example 13

*Dit is daar so dat hy gereeld hardloop.
It is there so that he regularly runs.

E Degree

Degree adverbs provide information about the degree of the situation or event described by the VP. Degree adverbs must be considered VP adverbs on semantic grounds, seeing that they do modify the VP, although they fail the test for VP-adverbs:

Example 14

Hulle het dit geweldig geniet.
they have it enormously enjoyed
The enjoyed it enormously.

Clausal adverb test:

Example 15

*Dit is geweldig so dat hulle dit geniet het.
it is enormously so that they it enjoyed have
It is enormously so that they enjoyed it.

F Preference

There is only one adverb of preference, with suppletive degrees of comparison:

Example 16

graag / liewer / die graagste
eagerly / preferably / most preferably

Some examples are given below:

Example 17

Ek doen dit graag.
I do it eagerly
I like to to it. / I will gladly do it.
Example 18

Sy skryf liewer as om daaroor te praat.
she writes rather than PTCL.INF there.over to talk
She rather writes than talking about it.
Example 19

Watter spesery gebruik jy die graagste in jou kos?
which spice use you the preferable·SUPL in your food
Which spice do you like to use most in your food?

G Position of VP adverbs with respect to clause adverbs

VP adverbs normally follow clause adverbs, although there are certain exceptions to this generalisation.

Compare the next two examples:

Example 20

Sy het blykbaar vanoggend vroeg opgestaan.
she has apparently this.morning early stood.up
She apparently got up early this morning.
Example 21

*Sy het vroeg blykbaar opgestaan.
she has early apparently stood.up
She early apparently got up.

However, in the case of left movement, for example to emphasise a VP adverb, the clause adverb may follow the relevant VP adverb, as in this example:

Example 22

Sy het vanoggend blykbaar vroeg opgestaan.
she has this.morning apparently early stood.up
She got up this morning apparently early.
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