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Sufficient degree, genoeg enough

The degree word genoeg enough is special, in that it follows the adjective which it modifies instead of preceding it. It indicates that a high degree limit of an adjective is sufficient for rendering the proposition in the infinitival clause true (or the result of the high degree of the adjective):

Example 1

Is jy slim genoeg om al hierdie vrae te beantwoord?
be.PRS you clever enough for.COMP all these questions to answer
Are you clever enough to answer all these questions?

In cases where there is no overt clause, the content of the proposition can be inferred from the context of the utterance, as in the sentence below:

Example 2

Is jy slim genoeg?
be.PRS you clever enough
Are you clever enough?

The degree word genoeg enough can be applied to nouns (where it functions as a quantifier) as well as adjectives, for example:

Example 3

Dis geld genoeg om 'n klein peloton te voed.
it.be.PRS money enough for.COMP a small platoon to feed
This is more than enough money to feed a small platoon.

Note that the placement of genoeg after the noun adds emphasis to, and stresses the noun itself, while the normal sequence is placing the enough before the noun:

Example 4

Ons het genoeg geld om vir onsself te sorg.
we have.AUX enough money for.COMP for ourselves to care
We have enough money to look after ourselves.

However, as a degree word in conjunction with adjectives, enough is placed after the adjective as a rule:

Example 5

Ek is slim genoeg om dit nie oop te maak nie.
I be.PRS clever enough for.COMP it not open to make
I am clever enough not to open it.

Combination with complete infinitival clause, or without infinitival clause

Such a structure may indicate that a sufficiently high degree limit of an adjective renders the proposition inherent in an accompanying infinitival clause true. However, the implication may also be that the proposition in the infinitival clause is caused by the main clause, as in this sentence:

Example 6

Hy was ook slim genoeg om die vraag netjies te ontduik.
he be.PRT also clever enough for.COMP the question neatly to dodge
He was also clever enough to neatly sidestep the question.

The sufficient degree structure may also be negated, in which case the negation includes the infinitival clause:

Example 7

Twee jaar was nie lank genoeg om van hom te vergeet nie.
two years be.PRT not long enough for.COMP of him PTCL.INF forget PTCL.NEG
Two years were not long enough to forget about him.

In the examples above, the sufficient degree of adjectives are specified in conjunction with complete infinitival clauses. While an infinitival clause may be omitted (or implied), as in:

Example 8

Dit is nie goed genoeg nie.
this be.PRS not good enough PTCL.NEG
This is not good enough.

the reason or purpose of the adjectival phrase is generally expressed by means of an infinitive construction, as exemplified in sentence (7) and others above.

In many cases, the object (with transitive verbs) or adverb (with intransitive verbs) are specified, as in

Example 9

Die rok is nie lank genoeg om die wit skoene te bedek nie.
the dress be.PRS not long enough for.COMP the white shoes to cover PTCL.NEG
The dress is not long enough to cover the white shoes.


Example 10

Jy is fiks genoeg om vinnig te hardloop.
you be.PRS fit enough for.COMP fast to run
You are fit enough to run fast.

In addition, the adjective specified by genoeg may itself be used adverbially, as in:

Example 11

Die ekonomie groei nie vinnig genoeg om werk te skep nie.
the economy grows not fast enough for.COMP work to create
The enonomy does not grow fast enough to create work.

Infinitival clause with object gap

The argument of which the adjective is predicated, can also by co-referential with a gap in the infinitival clause. This gap may occur in the position of direct object, as in

Example 12

Die water is nou suiwer genoeg om te drink.
the water be.PRS now pure enough for.COMP to drink
The water is now pure enough to drink.

or in the position of a prepositional complement:

Example 13

Sy is oud genoeg om mee uit te gaan.
she be.PRS old enough for.COMP with out to go
She is old enough to go out with.

With a finite clause

While the genoeg enough occurs within finite clauses, namely in a main clause, as in

Example 14

Dit is nou heeltemal warm genoeg.
it be.PRS now completely warm enough
It is now quite warm enough.

it may occur in conjunction with a finite clause which represents a subordinate clause:

Example 15

Hy praat stadig genoeg dat jy hom kan verstaan.
he speaks slow enough that.COMP you him can.AUX.MOD understand
He speaks slowly enough, so that you can understand him.

Attributive construction

The combination of adjective and modifier, as discussed above, has been recorded in constructions such as 'n lang genoeg tydperk a long enough period, but does not occur frequently. It would be conceivably possible in similar combinations, such as ?'n koud genoeg winter a cold enough winter or 'n lang genoeg leer a long enough ladder.

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