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Cross-classification of semantic classes and constructions
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Four semantic types of adjectives can be distinguished, as well as four main construction types. However, not every type of adjective is able to occur in every construction.

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All four types of adjectives occur in the attributive construction:

  • Attributive construction
    • Set-denoting adjective
      Example 1

      De hite simmer
      the hot summer
      The hot summer
    • Relational adjective
      Example 2

      Jouster fammen
      of.Joure girls
      Girls from Joure
    • Subjectively evaluating adjective
      Example 3

      Dy dealske feint
      that damned boy
      that damned boy
    • Residual
      Example 4

      Absolute ûnsin
      utter nonsense
      Utter nonsense

However, it turns out that only set-denoting adjectives occur in the predicative construction:

  • Predicative construction
    • Set-denoting adjective
      Example 5

      De simmer is hyt
      the summer is hot
      The summer is hot
    • Relational adjective
      Example 6

      *De fammen binne Jouster
      the girls are of. Joure
      The girls are from Joure
    • Subjectively evaluating adjective
      Example 7

      *Dy feint is dealsk
      that boy is damned
      That boy is damned
    • Residual
      Example 8

      *Dy unsin is absolút
      that nonsense is utter
      That nonsense is utter

Similarly, only set-denoting adjectives may enter the partitive construction:

  • Partitive construction
    • Set-denoting adjective in the partitive construction

      Example 9

      Wat hyts
      something hot
      Something hot
    • Relational adjective in the partitive construction

      Example 10

      *Wat Jousters
      something of.Joure
      Something from Joure
    • Subjectively evaluating adjective in the partitive construction

      Example 11

      *Wat dealsks
      something damned
      Something damned
    • Residual adjective in the partitive construction

      Example 12

      *Wat absolúts
      something utter
      Something utter

Finally, all adjectives, if their lexical meaning allows it, may occur as adverbials, except relational adjectives:

  • Adverbials
    • Set-denoting adjective in an adverbial construction
      Example 13

      Se prate lûd
      they talk loudly
      They talk loudly
    • Relational adjective in an adverbial construction
      Example 14

      *Se bakke Yndonesysk
      they bake Indonesian
      ?They bake Indonesian
    • Subjectively evaluating adjective in an adverbial construction
      Example 15

      Se ha aldergeloks won
      they have fortunately won
      Fortunately they have won
    • Residual adjective in an adverbial construction
      Example 16

      Dat is absolút net wier
      that is absolutely not true
      That is absolutely not true

This semantic classification is not rigid. For example, in some instances, a relational adjective may be used as a set-denoting adjective. In the examples below, the modifier typyskcharacteristically causes such a shift in meaning:

Example 1

a. ?Dy tsiis is Frysk
that cheese is Frisian
That cheese is Frisian
b. Dy tsiis is typisk Frysk
that cheese is characteristically Frisian
That cheese is typically Frisian
c. ?It is Frysk om gjin hân te jaan
it is Frisian for no hand to give
It is Frisian not to shake
d. It is typysk Frysk om gjin hân te jaan
it is characteristically Frisian for no hand to give
It is characteristically Frisian not the shake hands

In the examples below, an Adposition Phrase (PP) has been used to cause such a shift in meaning:

Example 2

a. ?Se bakke Yndonesysk
they bake Indonesian
They bake Indonesian
b. Se bakke op syn Yndonesysk
they bake on his Indonesian
They bake in the Indonesian way

This concludes the overview of the distribution of the semantic types of adjectives across syntactic constructions in which adjectives may appear.

References:
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