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Cross-classification of semantic classes and constructions
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Four semantic types of adjectives can be distinguished, as well as four main construction types. However, not every type of adjective is able to occur in every construction.

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All four semantic types of adjective can occur in the attributive construction.

Example 1

Set-denoting adjectives
die warm somer
the hot summer
the hot summer
Example 2

Relational adjectives
Mosselbaaise meisies
from.Mossel.Bay girls
girls from Mossel Bay
Example 3

Subjectively evaluating adjectives
daardie vervlakste skobbejak
that damned scoundrel
that damned scoundrel
Example 4

Residual
absolute onsin
absolute nonsense
utter nonsense

However, it should be noted that only set-denoting (i.e. descriptive) adjectives can occur in the predicative construction.

Example 5

Set-denoting adjectives
die somer is warm
the summer is hot
the summer is hot
Example 6

Relational adjectives
*die meisies is Mosselbaais
the girls are of.Mossel.Bay
the girls are from Mossel Bay
Example 7

Subjectively evaluating adjectives
*daardie skobbejak is vervlaks
that scoundrel is confounded
that scoundrel is confounded
Example 8

Residual
*daardie onsin is absoluut
that nonsense is absolute
that nonsense is utter

Similarly, only set-denoting (i.e. descriptive) adjectives may occur in the partitive construction:

Example 9

Set-denoting adjectives
iets warms
something hot
something hot
Example 10

Relational adjectives
*iets Mosselbaais
something of.Mossel.Bay
something from Mossel Bay
Example 11

Subjectively evaluating adjectives
*iets vervlaks
something confounded
something confounded
Example 12

Residual adjectives
*iets absoluuts
something utter
something utter

Finally, all adjectives, if their lexical meaning allows it, may occur as adverbials, except relational (i.e. classifying) adjectives:

Example 13

Set-denoting adjectives
hulle praat hard
they talk loudly
they talk loudly
Example 14

Relational adjectives
?hulle bak Italiaans
they bake Italian
?they bake Italian
Example 15

Subjectively evaluating adjectives
hulle het gelukkig gewen
they have fortunately won
fortunately they have won
Example 16

Residual adjectives
dit is absoluut nie waar nie
that is absolutely not true
that is absolutely not true

This semantic classification is not rigid. In some instances, an adjective that is, for example, relational, may be used as a set-denoting adjective. In the examples below, the modifier tipiescharacteristically causes such a shift in meaning:

Example 17

?daardie kaas is Belgies
that cheese is Belgian
that cheese is Belgian
Example 18

daardie kaas is tipies Belgies
that cheese is characteristically Belgian
that cheese is characteristically Belgian
Example 19

?Dit is Belgies om nie hand te skud nie.
it is Belgian to not hand to shake not
it is Belgian not to shake hands
Example 20

dit is tipies Belgies om nie hand te skud nie
it is characteristically Belgian to not hand to shake not
it is charactaristically Belgian not to shake hands

In the examples below, a PP has been used to cause such a shift in meaning:

Example 21

?hulle bak Frans
they bake French
they bake French
Example 22

hulle bak op Italiaanse wyse
they bake on Italian way
they bake in the Italian way

This concludes the overview of the distribution of semantic types of adjectives across the syntactic constructions in which adjectives may appear.

References:
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