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Pronouns
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Pronoun is a term used for a rather heterogeneous group of function words. In Frisian, this group covers the following sets of words:

  • personal pronouns: Ik sykje in boek, mar ik kin it net fineI am looking for a book but I cannot find it
  • demonstrative pronouns: Ik sykje in boek, mar dat is fuortI am looking for that book but it is gone
  • relative pronouns: Ik sykje in boek dat hjir stieI am looking for the book that was here
  • possessive pronouns: Marc hat syn boek fergettenMarc forgot his book
  • reflexive pronouns and reciprocal pronouns: Hy stelt him foarHe's introducing himself, Sy koenen inoar netThey did not know each other
  • indefinite pronouns: Immen moat it dwaanSomebody's got to do it, Se sizze dat sy troud isThey say that she's married
  • interrogative pronouns: Wat seist?What did you say?
As the examples show, pronouns have an enormous variety of uses, and there are many further functional divisions within each pronoun sort. From a morphological point of view pronouns are interesting because they are underived words yet carry morphosyntactic information. Which features are expressed varies per pronoun type. The richest array of morphosyntactic information is displayed by the personal pronouns of the third person. These pronouns distinguish two numbers, three genders (in the singular) and two cases. In the second person singular personal and possessive pronouns, there is a politeness distinction: do is used in informal, jo in formal situations. The demonstrative pronouns are special in that they distinguish near (proximal) and far (distal).

Function words that look like pronouns and are used as attributes to a noun, such as dat hûs that house or sokke huzen such houses, are discussed in the topic on demonstrative pronouns.

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More information about pronouns can be found by following the corresponding links:

References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
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    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
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    morphology
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    • Frisian
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    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • 5.2. Pronouns
      [61%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 5 Determiners: articles and pronouns
    • 4.1.3. Other constructions
      [59%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 4 Projection of noun phrases III: binominal constructions > 4.1. Binominal constructions without a preposition
    • 4.1.1.1. Types of N1s and N2s
      [59%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 4 Projection of noun phrases III: binominal constructions > 4.1. Binominal constructions without a preposition > 4.1.1. Quantificational constructions: een paar boeken 'a couple of books'
    • 14.1. Pragmatic markers
      [58%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 14 Main-clause external elements
    • 5.2.1.1. Referential personal pronouns
      [58%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 5 Determiners: articles and pronouns > 5.2. Pronouns > 5.2.1. Personal pronouns
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      [57%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
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      [57%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases
    • Root semantics
      [56%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
    • Constructions with APs
      [55%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Characteristics and classification
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      [55%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
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