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-st
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With the suffix -st(e) action nouns can be derived from verbs. An example is kommeto come > komstarrival. Sometimes the derivations indicate a result of the action rather than the action itself, for instance fangstcatch, which is the result of fangeto catch. Most of the time the derived nouns have common gender. A phonological condition is that all stems of the base verbs should end in a nasal.

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[+] General properties

With the suffix -st nouns can be derived from verbs. Examples are:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
kommeto come komstcoming
winneto win, gain winstprofit
(fer)langjeto desire (fer)langstdesire, wish
fineto find fynstdiscovery
fangeto catch fangstcatch
betingjeto stipulate betingstcondition

An opaque derivation is keunstart, which should be related to kinneto be able to; however, the deviating vocalism might be a reason for supposing that it is a loan from Dutch (cf. Dutch kunst).

Suffixation with -st results in action nouns, but sometimes the derivation indicates the result of the action. For instance, one can catch a fish and then the result is the fangstcatch.

[+] Gender

Usually, the derivations have common gender, but exceptionally one can find a derivation which is neuter. For example, (fer)langstdesire, wish can be both common and neuter. The pejorative derivation fernimstpedantic girl, coming from fernimmeto be told, only carries the neuter gender.

[+] The allomorph -ste

Some derivations show an allomorph -ste. Next to langstdesire there is langste. In older texts one can find komstecoming next to komst, but nowadays the final schwa in this word is obsolete. The variants with -ste belong to a more elevated style. There are two lexicalized derivations in -ste. The first is gearkomstemeeting (< gearkommeto meet). The second one is fertsjinstemerit; it is special in the sense that it lives next to a derivation in -st with a different meaning. The example below illustrates this:

Example 1

a. Nelson Mandela wie in man fan fertsjinste
Nelson Mandela was a man of merit
Nelson Mandela was a man of merit
b. Myn fertsjinst wie net sa grut, dat ik haw in baan socht dêr't ik wat mear fertsjinje koe
my salary was not so big, that I have a job sought there.REL I what more earn.INF could
My salary was not so high, so I have looked for a job where I could earn a little more
[+] Phonological properties

The stem of the base verb always ends in a nasal, i.e. /m/, /n/ or /ŋ/. Stems ending in /n/ undergo nasalization, and sometimes also lengthening; for a general phonological treatment, see vowel nasalization. An example is fine[finə]to find > fynst[fi:ⁿst]discovery. Another example is winst/ve:ⁿst/profit; gain; victory from the verb winne/vinə/to win.

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This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:121).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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