• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-t
quickinfo

The suffix -t is unproductive, as is its allomorph -te. Most derivations have common gender. The base is verbal, although there is one example with a nominal base: smidteforge, smithy. Most cases are object names denoting a result, as for example baktbaked goods, from the verb bakketo bake. An example of an action noun is jokteitch, from the verb jokjeto itch. Other derivations have a less clear semantics. Several derivations are also formally opaque, as for example grêft canal, which is related to the verb graveto dig.

readmore
[+] General properties

The suffixes -t and -te have traditionally been considered as being allomorphs of each other. However, only the word went(e)house (from the verb wenjeto live) shows both variants. With respect to gender, we find neuter nouns next to common ones.

[+] The allomorph -t

Not many derivations in -t are transparently related to verbs. These are the most important ones:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
bakketo bake baktbaked goods
tsjernjeto churn tsjerntthe result produced after churning
brouweto brew broutbrew
brâneto burn brantfuel
stalleto form staltwaterside step
spriedeto spread spriedtlaid out corn (before threshing)
tyljeto grow tyltcultivation

Most of these derivations are object nouns, and more exactly are the result of a process or action (although brantfuel is an exception). An action noun is tyltcultivation. These derivations can be either common or neuter nouns and are rather old-fashioned nowadays.

Other derivations are less transparent, but far more settled in the daily language:


Table 2
Base form Derivation
farreto sail feartcanal
graveto dig grêftcanal
bûgeto bend bochtbend
friezeto freeze froastfrost
noegjeto please nochtpleasure

Most of these have common gender, but for instance skriftscript (from skriuweto write) and wichtweight (from weageto weigh) are neuter.

[+] The allomorph -te

There are also a few forms in which the suffix is -te instead of -t:


Table 3
Base form Derivation
jokjeto itch jokteitch
stjerreto die stjertedeath
begeareto desire begeartedesire
muoieto regret, to be sorry for muoiteeffort, trouble
bernjeto bear bertebirth
jaanto give jeftetalent

These derivations, which have common gender, belong to the daily language. The last example jefte is less transparent.

[+] Noun as base

A possible derivation with a nominal base could be smidteforge, smithy. Assumption of a verbal base is problematic in this case, as the relevant verb is smeieto forge, to smith. The Old Frisian forms that have come down to us is are smithe and smitte.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:120-121). De Vaan (2014:29) argues for a simplex status of smidte on historical grounds, although he does not exclude that the word is reinterpreted as a derivation with a suffix -te.

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Vaan, Michiel de2014West Germanic *thth and *thm in DutchAmsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik721-34
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Gender
    [75%] Dutch > Morphology > Inflection > Nouns
  • Conversion
    [75%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation
  • -er (nominal)
    [74%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • Nominalising ge-
    [74%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal prefixes
  • -s
    [74%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • -erij
    [79%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Verb as base
  • -ing
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Verb as base
  • -ert
    [76%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Adjective as base
  • -st
    [76%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Verb as base
  • -ant
    [76%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Verb as base
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • 1.3.2. Deadjectival nouns
    [72%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns
  • 2.2.3.1. Agentive er-nominalizations
    [71%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.2. Prepositional and nominal complements > 2.2.3. Deverbal nouns
  • 1.2.2.2. Abstract nouns
    [71%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.2. Classification > 1.2.1. Proper nouns
  • 1.3.1.4. Ge-nominalization
    [71%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
  • 5.1.2.3. Special cases
    [71%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 5 Determiners: articles and pronouns > 5.1. Articles > 5.1.2. Noun phrases without an article
Show more ▼
cite
print