• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents

The productive suffix -er is mainly used to derive nouns from verbs. These nouns can refer to personal or impersonal agents, instruments and patients, but can also be action nouns.

Furthermore there is a small group of derivations with a different base: there are a few numerals, some nouns, a couple of adjectives, and also phrases. All derivations, independent of the category of their base, are nouns of common gender, and their plurals always end in -s.

[+] Introduction

The suffix -er can be used to build nouns from verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals and also phrases. All these derivations, independent of their base form category, are nouns of common gender, and their plurals always end in -s.

When they refer to a person - for instance lêzerreader - the nouns are often not gender specific: they can refer to both men and women. Still, in some cases in which women are involved one rather would use a feminine form. An example is skriuwerwriter (in general) versus skriuwsterfemale writer. See the corresponding link for information about the feminine suffix -ster.

Finally, there is also a suffix -er which forms inhabitant names from a geographical proper noun.

[+] Verb as base

The suffix -er is mainly used to derive nouns from verbs. These nouns can be personal or impersonal subjects, instruments, objects or action nouns. All have common gender.

Firstly, examples of personal subjects are:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
bakketo bake bakkerbaker
lêzeto read lêzerreader
ligeto lie ligerliar
beheareto manage beheardermanager
tsjoeneto conjure tsjoenderwizard
stypjeto support stipersupporter
dreameto dream dreamerdreamer
skriuweto write skriuwerwriter
In the table above the base forms are only simplex, but bases can also be complex. Examples are listed below:

  • noun + verb + -er: fioele-bouw-erviolin-build-SUFFviolin maker, boek-bin-erbook-bind-SUFFbookbinder;
  • adverb + verb + -er: bûten-stean-deroutside-stand-SUFFoutsider, dom-prat-erstupid-talk-SUFFfool;
  • particle + verb + -er: yn-brekk-erin-break-SUFFburglar, oer-sett-erover-set-SUFFtranslator.

These formations need not necessarily to be considered as synthetic compounds, as the relevant complex verbs do exist in Frisian. Phrasal bases also occur; these will be discussed below in phrase as base.

Verbs with stem allomorphy often show two forms. For example, the verb oankleieto accuse has two derivations: oankleieraccuser and oanklageraccuser. For more information about these forms, see irregular weak verbs belonging to class II.

Quite common is the use of -er in the following expressions, where the derivation in -er denotes a guest by indicating the reason for visiting:

Example 1

a. Wy krije moarn in kofjedrinker
we get tomorrow a coffee.drink.SUFF
Tomorrow a guest will come for a coffee
b. Us heit makket it bêd klear foar de slieper
our father makes the bed ready for the sleep.SUFF
My father prepares the bed for our guest
[hide extra information]
x Dutch -ende and Frisian -er

A difference with Dutch is the fact that the latter has two suffixes deriving agent nouns: -er and -ende, the latter with a formal and collective connotation. In Frisian, the original verbal ending -ende is not used for this purpose. Hence, we see that corresponding Dutch words with -ende often end in -er in Frisian. Examples are:

Table 2
Dutch Frisian
belangstellendesomeone who is interested nigethawwersomeone who is interested
inzittendepassenger ynsitterpassenger
woningzoekendehouse hunter wenningsikerhouse hunter
omwonendeneighbour omwennerneighbour
overlevendesurvivor oerlibbersurvivor
langstlevendelongest liver langste libberlongest liver
hoogstbiedendehighest bidder heechste biederhighest bidder

More information on this contrast can be found in De Haan and Hoekstra (1993:19-21) and Hoekstra (1987).

Secondly, as in other Germanic languages, the suffix -er also builds impersonal agent names from verbs. Examples are:

Table 3
Base form Derivation
wizeto point wizerpointer
kuoljeto cool kuollercooler
printsjeto print printerprinter
rutewiskjeto wipe the windows rutewiskerscreenwiper
pakjedrageto carry packets pakjedragercarrier
bommesmiteto throw bombs bommesmiterbomber

Thirdly, next to the impersonal subject names there are instrument names, i.e. things that one can use to perform something. Examples are:

Table 4
Base form Derivation
stekketo stab, to put, to prick stekkerplug
bjinneto scrub bjinderscrubber
klopjeto knock, to beat klopperdoor knocker
skroevedraaieto screw skroevedraaierscrewdriver
túnklauweto rake the garden túnklauwerrake

Fourth, object names may be derived with the help of -er, although this pattern is not quite widespread:

Table 5
Base form Derivation
iteto eat itera potato that is grown for consumption
ompartsjeto part omparterhandout
oanhingjeto hang, be attached to something oanhingertrailer
oerstrûpeto change clothes oerstrûperblouse

Other suffixes that create object names are -sel and -ing.

[hide extra information]
x Homonymous derivations

Sometimes, one derivation can have two meanings, because it may function both as an object noun and as a subject noun. The following example illustrates this. In the first sentence the derivation is an object noun, while in the second sentence the same word has been used as a personal subject:

Example 2

a. Ik ha de oanhinger al oan 'e wein keppele
I have the trailer already on the car connected
I've attached the trailer to the car
b. Sy is in oanhinger fan dy nije politike partij
she is a supporter of that new political pary
She is a supporter of the new political party

Finally, the suffix can create action nouns, often derived from impersonal verbs. Here are some sentences illustrating this:

Example 3

a. It sil fan 'e middei wol in reinder wurde
it shall of the afternoon well a rain-SUFF become
It will probably rain this afternoon
b. Krekt foar't wy thús wienen, krigen wy noch in bêste snjitter
just before we home were, got we still a best spout-SUFF
Just before we got home, we got quite a shower
c. Wy hienen in bêste skower yn 'e wyn op
we had a best shove-SUFF in the wind on
It was quite hard to cycle against the wind
d. Hy hat noch krekt in skamper fan 'e gryp meikrigen
he has still just a scuff-SUFF of the flu got
He was infected by a residue of the flu

Many of these derivations have something to do with the weather. Below, base forms and exact meanings are given:

Table 6
Base forms Derivations
reineto rain reinderlong lasting shower
snjitteto spout snjitterquick heavy shower
driuweto float driuwergentle breeze, just enough to be able to sail
stoweto drizzle stowerdrizzle
[hide extra information]
x Literature

More examples of this kind can be found in Tjepkema (1978:51).

[+] Noun as base

The suffix -er can also follow other word classes than verbs. For instance, it can be attached to nouns:

Table 7
Base form Derivation
skipship skippercaptain
mûnemill mûndermiller
die(d)deed, act diederperpetrator

In line with the core of the verbal bases, these derivations more or less carry an idea of agentivity. For example, a mûndermiller lets a mill function in its proper way.

There are also examples where the noun is followed by the allomorph -ner. This especially occurs after dental stops:

Table 8
Base form Derivation
keunstart keunstnerartist
amtoffice amtnerpublic servant
skulddebt, guilt skuldnerdebtor
klûshermitage klûznerhermit

The noun widnerwidower seems to have been derived from female widdowidow with truncation of the final segment /o:/.

The nominal base is often complex, as for example haad-fakhead-subjectmajor subject > haadfakkermajor student. Acronyms can be input as well: FNPFrisian National Party > FNP'erFNP.SUFFsupporter or member of the Frisian National Party.

[+] Adjective as base

There are only a few adjectives that can be followed by -er. One is frijwillichvoluntary > frijwilligervolunteer.

There are also two predicatively used adjectives that can take -er. One example is the univerbation útfanhûsout-of-housestaying as visitor. From this can be derived útfanhuzer, as in:

Example 4

Us heit makket it bêd klear foar de útfanhuzer
our father makes the bed ready for the out.of.house.SUFF
My father prepares the bed for our guest

The other predicatively used adjective is fuortaway, which becomes fuortersomeone who likes to go out. This fuorter is a negative polarity item:

Example 5

Ik bin net sa'n fuorter
I am not such.a away.SUFF
I do not like going out
[+] Numeral as base

Decades can be followed by -er as well. Examples are tachticheighty > tachtigerperson in his/her eighties and twintichtwenty > twintigerperson in his/her twenties. Again, these nouns always have common gender. (Another suffix -er that takes the same numeral bases but rather forms adjectives is dealt with in -er forming adjectives out of numerals).

[+] Phrase as base

Sometimes, the suffix -er may also take phrasal bases. An example is twaddeklassersecond-class-SUFFperson belonging to the second class. The suffix -er even functions in very complex constructions, for example in:

Example 6

Dat is sa'n bern-bûten-op-'e-dyk-omrinnelitter
that is such.a child-outside-on-the-road-araound-walk.INF-let.SUFF
That is a parent who leaves his children walking outside, without paying attention to them

Hoekstra (1987:11-23) analyses this kind of constructions from a syntactic point of view.

[+] Phonological properties

In the case of stems ending in [-r], like behear, a segment [d] has to be inserted: beheardermanager. If the stem ends in [-l] or [-n], the insertion is optional. An example is hurdrin(d)errunner. For d-insertion, see /d/-insertion in the sequences /nər/, /lər/, and /rər/.

[hide extra information]
x A meaning difference between forms with or without [d]-insertion

In the case of the verb bjinneto scrub the derivation can be either bjinnerscrubber or bjinderscrubber. The form with the inserted [d] can refer to both the acting person and the instrument, while the form without the [d] can only refer to a person.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:96-98).

  • Haan, Rienk de & Hoekstra, Jarich1993Morfologyske tûkelteammen by de leksikale útwreiding fan it FryskIt Beaken5514-31
  • Hoekstra, JarichOver woord- en woordgroepstructuur
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1987Ynsitters en wenningsikers?Friesch Dagblad03-10Taalsnipels 49
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Tjepkema, Hotze1978Efkes TaelbuorkjeKoperative Utjowerij, Ljouwert
Suggestions for further reading ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Rhotacism
    [77%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Consonant related processes
  • d-deletion
    [77%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Consonant related processes > Consonant cluster simplification: Overview
  • Homorganic glide insertion
    [77%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes
  • Nasalization
    [77%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Vowel related processes
  • Nasal assimilation
    [76%] Afrikaans > Phonology > Phonological Processes > Consonant related processes
Show more ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • -er (nominal)
    [86%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • Adjectival inflection
    [84%] Dutch > Morphology > Inflection
  • -ing
    [84%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -s
    [82%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • Separable complex verbs (SCVs)
    [82%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Compounding
  • -DIM (diminutive)
    [88%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Noun as base
  • -ing
    [86%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Verb as base
  • -er (inhabitant names)
    [86%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Geographical name as base
  • -heid, -ens and -ichheid
    [85%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Nominal suffixes > Adjective as base
  • Cardinal numbers
    [85%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
Show more ▼
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • Abstract nouns
    [85%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.2. Classification > 1.2.1. Proper nouns
  • 1.3.2. Deadjectival nouns
    [85%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns
  • 1.3. Inflection
    [84%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification
  • Er-nominalization
    [84%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
  • 1.2.1. Proper nouns
    [84%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.2. Classification
Show more ▼