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-skip
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The Germanic suffix -skip[skɪp] derives nouns from nouns, adjectives and sometimes verbs. Examples are:

  • nouns: liederleader > liederskipleadership;
  • adjectives: bliidhappy > blydskipjoy;
  • verbs: neilitteto bequeath > neilittenskipestate.
The nouns can be neuter or common: it fakmanskipthe workmanship versus de freonskipthe friendship; neuter nouns are more frequent than common nouns. Historically they go back to the same root, so they are treated here in the same topic.

The suffix is not productive anymore in its function of nominalising adjectives or verbs, but it is for nouns that have a neuter output noun which means something like "the function of being a {noun}". Liederskipleadership, for instance, denotes the function of being a leader.

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[+] General properties

Nouns with the Germanic suffix -skip[skɪp] can have neuter or common gender. Neuter nouns are more frequent. Historically, both go back to the same root (see Etymologiebank). Below, some examples of each category are listed:


Table 1
Neuter derivations Common derivations
it fakmanskipthe workmanship de freonskipthe friendship
it agintskipthe agency de blydskipthe gladness
it genoatskipthe society de weddenskipthe bet
it erfskipthe heritage de eigenskipthe property
it hearskipthe gentleman de finzenskipthe imprisonment
it keizerskipthe emperorship de betterskipthe recuperation

As can be seen, the derivations of -skip form a varied group of words. This is caused by the fact that they can have three bases: adjectival, nominal or verbal.

[+] Adjective as input

In the table below, examples of nouns in -skip with a adjectival base are given:

Table 2
Base form Derivation
bliidhappy blydskipjoy
dronkendrunk dronkenskipdrunkenness
eigenown eigenskipproperty
finzenimprisoned finzenskipimprisonment
miencommon mienskipsociety
betterbetter betterskiprecuperation
The nouns with an adjectival base are always common: de blydskipthe joy, de dronkenskipthe drunkenness, etcetera. The suffix is not productive anymore in its function of nominalising adjectives.

[+] Noun as input

In the table below examples of nouns in -skip with a nominal base are given:

Table 3
Base form Derivation
liederleader liederskipleadership
freonfriend freonskipfriendship
kammeraatfriend kammeraatskipfriendship
keningking keningskipkingship
greefcount greefskipcounty, shire
skriuwerauthor skriuwerskipauthorship
Most of the derivations with a nominal base are neuter: it keningskipthe kingship, it liederskipthe leadership, it skriuwerskipthe authorship, etc., but there are a few lexicalized forms that have common gender, for instance de freonskipfriendship, de kammeraatskipfriendship and de buorskiphamlet Hoekstra (1998:115).

The suffix is not productive for these common nouns, but it is for the neuter nouns. To be precise, this is the only category in which the suffix -skip is still productive.

[hide extra information]
x Opaque nominal derivations

Some derivations of -skip, like boadskipmessage (< boademessenger) and selskipcompany, fellowship (< cf. Dutch gezelfellow), are completely lexicalised and have an opaque semantics.

[+] Verb as input

There are a limited number of common gender nouns in -skip that seem to have a verbal base:


Table 4
Base form Derivation
neilitteto bequeath neilittenskiplegacy
rekkenjeto calculate rekkenskipaccount
wedzjeto bet weddenskipbet
witteto know wittenskipscience

It could also be argued (see Booij (2002:129) for the Dutch counterpart -schap) that such derivations consist of a nominal base, since the verbal base is not represented by the verbal stem but rather by the infinitive, a verbal form that may act as a noun. Anyhow, for this base category it also applies that the suffix -skip is unproductive. Moreover, influence from Dutch cannot be ruled out, for instance with respect to weddenskipbet, since one would rather expect an infinitive form wedzjen as input here (from the verb wedzjeto bet.

[+] Semantic properties

The meaning of the -skip-derivations depends on the base form. The meanings are listed below:

  • adjectival base (unproductive): refers to "being {adjective}" Hoekstra (1998:115). Dronkenskipdrunkenness for instance refers to being drunk.
  • nominal base (productive): refers to "the function of being a {noun}". Thus keningskipkingship refers to the function of being a king. Lexicalised neuter derivations of -skip can also refer to a set of people (in case of genoatskipsociety), a territory (for instance lânskiplandscape) or an organisation, like wetterskipbody of surveyors of the dikesHoekstra (1998:115).
  • nominal base (unproductive): refers to "the property of being a {noun}", so freonskipfriendship refers to the property of being a friend.
  • verbal base (unproductive): no standard meaning can be given.

[+] Phonological properties

Suffixation by -skip[skɪp] respects the stress pattern of the base word. The suffix can either follow a stressed or an unstressed syllable: geNOATskipsociety versus BETterskiprecuperation. However, in derivations of -skip with a nominal base, there is a preference for base forms ending in an unstressed syllable. For instance: FENnoatskippartnership or KEIzerskipemperorship but *BERNskipchildship or *BOERskipfarmership. However, in HEARskipreign and GREEFskipcounty, shire the stress is on the syllable directly preceding -skip. There is one example of stress shift, i.e. deverbal neiLITTENskiplegacy (< NEIlitteto bequeath).

[hide extra information]
x Dutch versus Frisian

The Dutch equivalent of -skip is -schap. In Dutch one can have the words moederschapmaternity and vaderschappaternity. In Frisian the words for mother and father are resp. mem and heit, hence monosyllabic words. Instead of adding -skip, one tends to use a construction with the verb wêzeto be: it memwêzenthe mother.beingmaternity or it heitwêzenthe father.beingpaternity.

[+] Morphological potential

Many formations of -skip do not have a plural (cf. *blydskippenjoys, *betterskippenrecuperations), due to their abstract meaning, but if applicable, the plural is in -en: genoatskipsociety > genoatskippensocieties and eigenskipproperty > eigenskippenproperties.

Nouns ending in -skip can occur as the first part of a compound: genoatskip-s-ledensociety members, buorskipbewennersthe inhabitants of a hamlet, freonskip-s-ferdrachtreaty of friendship and mienskip-s-stipecrowd funding. As can be seen, the linking element -s- has often been added to the first part of the compound. Diminutive forms are unusual: ?ballingskipkebrief exile, ?eigenskipkesmall property. A few derivations with unproductive -skip can be input to other derivational processes, e.g. adjective formation by means of the affix -lik or -er. Examples ending in -lik are freonskiplikfriendly (< freonskipfriendship) and wittenskiplikscientific (< wittenskipscience). An example of an agent noun formation by means of -er is: wittenskipperscientist < wittenskipscience).

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This section is based on Hoekstra (1998:113-115) and De Haan (2001:114).

References:
  • Booij, Geert2002The morphology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Haan, Germen J. de2001Grammar of Modern West-FrisianUniversity of Groningen
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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