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-guod
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The suffix -guod productively derives neuter collective nouns from nouns. Examples are fûgelbird > fûgelguodbirds and blomflower > blommeguodflowers. The suffix originates from the noun guodgoods, stuff. Occasionally, phrasal bases can be found. Some derivations have a pejorative connotation.

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[+] Derivation versus compounding

The suffix -guod has developed from the noun guodstuff, and hence it can be considered a suffixoid. If that noun acts as the second member of a nominal compound, it keeps its meaning stuff. An example is barg-e-guodpig-LK-stuffpigmeat. However, the word bargeguod can also mean (set of) pigs. In that case, we have a suffix -guod which semantically is a function operating on the base. This function is to turn the base noun to a collective.

Although the semantics might be felt as plural, derivations with -guod are always in the singular. Moreover, they have neuter gender: one talks about it bargeguodART.DEF.N pig-LK-SUFF.

[+] Noun as base

Most derivations with -guod take a noun as base. Examples are given below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
fûgelbird fûgelguodbirds
blomflower blom(me)guodflowers
beamtree beam(me)guodtrees
bistanimal bisteguodanimals
strewelbush strewelleguodbushes
kleanclothes kleanguodclothes

The base may also be a diminutive, as in beamkeguodtree-DIM-SUFFsmall trees.

The meaning of the derivation can best be defined as collective. Hence, there is a slight semantic difference from the ordinary plural, in that the collective implies that the set referred to may involve some smaller or bigger differences between the individuals. With the plural form this aspect of diversity remains irrelevant, and the plural is primarily interpreted in a quantificational sense. Take the following pair of sentences, in which in the (b)-example one inevitably thinks of different species, while this does not need to be the case in the first one.

Example 1

a. Myn buorman hat aardich wat fûgels yn 'e tún
my neighbour has quite what birds in the garden
There are quite a number of birds in my neighbour's garden
b. Myn buorman hat aardich wat fûgelguod yn 'e tún
my neighbour has quite what birds.SUFF in the garden
There are quite a number of birds in my neighbour's garden

There are also base nouns which already are collective nouns themselves, kleanclothes for instance. Both klean and kleanguod thus have an inherently collective element. It seems, however, that the derivation with -guod merely strengthens this collective element or makes it explicit. Other examples with a collective base are fleisguod (< fleismeat), bôleguod (from bôlebread) and reidguod (from reidreed).

[+] Phrase as base

Phrasal bases particularly consist of binomial expressions, like leppel-en-foarkeguod[spoon and fork]-SUFFspoons and forks or pot-en-panguod[pot and pan]-SUFFpots and pans. Also combinations of adjective and noun may take the suffixoid -guod, foar example opslûpen jongesguod[lanky boys]-SUFFlanky boys.

[+] Pejorative connotation

The derivations have a pejorative character, especially when they refer to persons. Examples are berneguodchildren, boeveguodcriminals, flardeguodyoung rascals or the above named opslûpen jongesguod[lanky boys]-SUFFlanky boys. The following examples may illustrate this:

Example 2

a. Ik wol dat dat boeveguod út ús lân ferdwynt!
I want that that crook.SUFF out our country disappears
I want those criminals to leave our country!
b. Dat opslûpen jongesguod wie fan 'e moarn wer oan it beltsjedrukken
that adolescent boys.SUFF was from the morning again on the ring.push
This morning, those adolescent boys were ringing the bell and running away again

With the plurals boevencriminals and jongesboys the sentences would have had the same translation, but the pejorative connotation is strengthened in the derivations with -guod.

[+] Phonological properties

The suffix -guod is, as its original noun guodstuff, goods, pronounced as [gwot], with a broken diphthong. Suffixation does not alter stress, which remains on the base. The base may show breaking, as in beammeguod, where we have a change of [bɪ.əm] to [bjɛm]. Breaking is optional in beamguod, which can be pronounced both as [bɪ.əmɡṷot] and [bjɛmɡṷot].

[+] Linking

Nominal bases that potentially would take the plural suffix -en can show a linking morpheme -e. Examples are strewelleguodbushes (< strewelbush) and hinneguodchickens (< hinchicken). However, we also see it in berneguodchildren, where the base noun bernchild is irregular, as its plural form bernchildren does not have a plural suffix. This linking element is sometimes optional, cf. beammeguodtrees vs beamguod (< beamtree).

[+] Morphological potential

The derivations can not be input for other suffixes.

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x More suffixes that form collective nouns

Alternatives for -guod are suffixes like -boel, -spul, -brol and -brot. Like -guod, they originate from nouns: boel, spul, brot and brol. These all mean stuff, things, matters. The base form bistanimal can be followed by all suffixes: bisteguod, bisteboel, bistespul, bistebrot or bistebrol. All derivations have the same meaning: animals, although with a more or less pejorative connotation.

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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:87-88).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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