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-erwize
quickinfo

The suffix -erwize creates adverbs from adverbially used adjectives (including present participles). An example is tafallichby chance > tafalligerwizeby chance. The suffix is unproductive, and many formations seem to be loans from Dutch. The bases are complex.

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[+] General properties

The suffix -erwize creates adverbs from other adverbs, i.e. adverbially used adjectives and present participles. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
normaalnormal/normally normalerwizenormally
foarsichtichcareful foarsichtigerwizecarefully
oanfallendoffensive oanfallenderwizeoffensively
boartsjendplaying boartsjenderwizewithout effort
earlikhonest/honestly earlikerwizehonestly
begryplikunderstandable/understandably begryplikerwizein an understandable way
fatsoenlikdecent/decently fatsoenlikerwizedecently
minsklikhuman/humanly minsklikerwizehumanly
dúdlikclear/clearly dúdlikerwizeclearly
reedlikrational/rationally reedlikerwizerationally
foarsichtichcareful/carefully foarsichtigerwizecarefully
freegjendinterrogative/interrogatively freegjenderwizeinquiringly
roljendrolling/rollingly roljenderwizein a rolling way
The base forms are complex, that is, they contain a suffix. Usually, this is the ending of the present participle -end or the suffixes -ich or -lik. This may be an important difference with the suffix -wei, which can also be attached to monosyllabic words.

The suffix -erwize carries the meaning ‘in a manner indicated by the base form’. This reflects its etymological relationship with the noun wizemanner. The main semantic roles of the adverbs are those of qualification, modality, and evaluation. The usual way to express a manner in Frisian is by using the suffix -wei. Often, a derivation with -erwize has a Dutch flavour. A subtle semantic difference might furthermore be that -wei also involves a time aspect: it implies that the manner has persisted during the whole of the action. This aspect seems to be lacking with respect to -erwize.

[+] Phonological properties

The suffix preserves the main stress location of its base word (EARlikhonest/honestly > EARlikerwizehonestly); the second syllable of the suffix [vi:] carries secondary stress. The prosodic structure of the adverbs is such that each consists of two prosodic words. The first one is formed by the base + the part -er-, whereas -wiis/-wize forms the second prosodic word, as in /(moγləkər)(υizə)/.

When the base form ends in a voiceless consonant, this becomes voiced before -erwize: lokkich[lokəx]lucky > lokkigerwize[lokəɣərvi:zə]luckily, boartsjend[bṷatsjənt]playing > boartsjenderwize[bṷatsjəndərvi:zə]effortlessly.

[+] Morphological potential

Adverbs in -erwize cannot be input for further derivation.

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x Literature

Some more details about the suffixe -erwize can be found in Boersma (2007).

References:
  • Boersma, Gertrud D2007Bywurden mei de efterheaksels -wei en -wiis/wize yn it Frysk en -weg en -wijs/-wijze yn it NederlânskRijksuniversiteit GroningenThesis
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