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-ear
quickinfo

The suffix -earje productively derives verbs from nouns and adjectives. Examples are koadecode > koadearjeto (en)code, torpedotorpedo > torpedearjeto torpedo and parfumperfume > parfumearjeto scent. The suffix is mainly used in words that do not belong to the Germanic stock.The suffix has three variants, partly broken, which can be inflected along both classes of Frisian weak verbs. After /l/, /n/ and /r/ we see the linking element -is-, for example in kanaalcanal > kanalisearjeto canalize. The stress is always on the element -ear, i.e. as in kanalisEARje.

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[+] General properties

The suffix -ear derives verbs from non-native nouns and adjectives. There are also formations in which no clear existing base form can be recognized. Examples are avansearjeto advance, iggewearjeto object and obstreweajeto observe.

The suffix comes in three variants. The form -earje, which is inflected according to the weak verbs of class II (the so-called -je-verbs), has a broken and a non-broken variant. The infinitival forms are pronounced as ([jɛrjə] and [I.ərjə], respectively. The variant that is inflected along the lines of the weak verbs of class I is not broken. Its infinitival form is -eare ([I.ərə]. As broken -earje is most distant from Dutch -eren, this form tends to be preferred as the norm.

[show extra information]
x Obligatoriness with a foreign base

Hoekstra (1998:154) argues that -ear- is obligatory in verbs derived from non-native base forms. It is doubtful whether this is fully correct, however, because we can also find verbs from non-native bases that do not show the suffix. Examples are mailmail > e-maileto e-mail (*e-mailearje), dûsshower > dûseto shower (*dûsearje) and faksfax > fakseto fax (the Frisian verb faksearjeto press has a different base). Nevertheless, for most bases originating in Romance languages (French, Latin) the generalization will apply. Note that the suffix -ear can be related etymologically to the French infinitival ending -er.

[+] Nominal base

The suffix -earje derives verbs from nouns that have a non-native base. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
publykpublic publisearjeto publish
fabrykfactory fabrisearjeto manufacture
muzykmusic musisearjeto make music
kanaalcanal kanalisearjeto canalize
kristalcrystal kristallisearjeto crystallize
evangeeljegospel evangelisearjeto evangelize
tirantyrant tirannisearjeto tyrannize
karaktercharacter karakterisearjeto characterize
adresaddress adressearjeto address
argyfarchive argivearjeto put into the archives
advysadvice advisearjeto advise
budzjetbudget budzjettearjeto budget
ekskúsapology ekskusearjeto excuse
Next to musisearje and fabrisearje one can find the forms muzykje and fabrykje, which have (almost) the same semantics: to make music and to knock together.

Interestingly, there are some cases in which the base is a native form. Examples are grûnground > grûndearjeto lay the foundations of (with -d- inserted) and broektrouser > broekerearjeto shit (ironically) (with a linking -er-).

In words like avesearjeto make haste, obstrewearjeto observe and iggewearjeto object, the base form cannot be recognized anymore.

[+] Adjectival base

The suffix -earje derives verbs from non-native adjectives. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 2
Base form Derivation
aktyfactive akivearjeto activate
kursyfitalic kursivearjeitalicize
blondblond blondearjeto bleach
bankerotbankrupt bankerottearjeto go bankrupt
egaaleven egalisearjeto level
sterylsterile sterilisearjeto sterilize
modernmodern modernisearjeto modernize
There are some cases in which the base form is a native word, or is no longer felt as foreign. Examples are blynblind > blyndearjeto armour and soberaustere > soberearjeto live austerely.

[+] Phonological properties

If the base form ends in /-yk/, the final /k/ is replaced by /s/ before -earje: publykpublic > publisearjeto publish and fabrykfactory > fabrisearjeto manufacture. Next to the forms publisearje and fabrisearje, one can find the forms publikaasjepublication and fabrikaazjemanufacture, where the /k/ is retained.

If the base form ends in /l/, /n/ or /r/, it is mostly extended with the linking element -is- before -ear: kanaalcanal > kanalisearjeto canalize and egaaleven > egalisearjeto level. In evangeeljegospel > evangelisearjeto evangelize, /-je/ is also truncated.

In derivations with -ear, the stress always falls on the suffix, so there is stress-shift. For example ALfabetalphabet > alfabetiSEARje, kompliMINTcompliment > kompliminTEARjeto compliment and teleFOANtelephone > telefoNEARjeto call.

[show extra information]
x Literature

This topic is primarily based on Hoekstra (1998:154) and Hoekstra (1991). For an overview of native bases, including some idiosyncratic linking elements, see Visser (2000:180-181).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1991Argewaasje en strideraasjeFriesch Dagblad04-05Taalsnipels 183
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Visser, Willem2000Frjemd wurdt eigener. Oer de âlde Frânske lienwurden yn it FryskIt Beaken62141-218
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