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-lik
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The suffix -lik derives adjectives from verbs (begripeto understand > begryplikunderstandable), nouns (minskehuman > minsklikhuman) adjectives (siikill > sykliksickly), prepositions (foarfor, in favour > foarlikprecocious) and a numeral (ienone > ienliksingle). There are a few derivations of which the basic form is not recognizable anymore (*aak > aaklikunpleasant). All base types will be discussed in the sections below.

When it is attached to transitive verbs, the suffix -lik has the same function as -ber: both add a passive meaning and a modal meaning "possible to be {verb}-ed"; they are in competition with each other.

When it is attached to nouns, the suffix -lik has the same semantic function as the suffixes -eftich, -ich, and -sk: "resembling {noun}" (minskhuman > minsklikhuman) or "having a lot of {noun}" (romtespace > romtlikspatial).

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[+] Verb as base

Derivations with -lik from transitive verbs can have a modal-passive meaning (begripeto understand > begryplikunderstandable, erveto inherit > erflikheritable and oannimmeto accept > oannimlikplausible). For example, in begryplike preek means a sermon that is understandable.

Derivations with -lik from transitive verbs can also have a meaning of necessity (bespotteto ridicule > bespotlikridiculous, winskjeto desire> winsklikdesirable and ferachteto despise > ferachtlikdespicable). For example, in bespotlike keardel means a despicable bloke.

With some intransitive and ergative verbs as their base, -lik derivations can have a modal-active meaning in sentences like the following:

Example 1

Dy fisk is stjerlik
that fish is mortal
That fish is mortal
It drinken is bedjerlik
the drink is perishable
The drink is perishable

An active meaning and a meaning of necessity occur in derivations like the following: begrutlikregrettable, muoiliktouched, fertrietliksadly, oandwaanliktouching and skrikliktempting. For example, in begrutlike man means a man that you have to feel regrets for.

Some derivations with -lik which have a verb as base form have the non-modal meaning "with a tendency to {verb}". In this case, the suffix is comparable with the meaning of the suffixes -sk and -ich. Examples are boartsjeto play > boartlikplayful and bewegeto move > beweechliklively.

[+] Noun as base

When it is attached to nouns, the suffix -lik has the same semantic function as the suffixes -eftich, -ich, and -sk: "resembling {noun}" (minskhuman > minsklikhuman) or "having a lot of {noun}" (romtespace > romtlikspatial). Sometimes, the meaning is bleached to "related to {noun}". Examples are given in the table below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
amtoffice amtlikofficial
tsjerkechurch tsjerklikecclesiastical
steatstate steatlikstately
saakbusiness saaklikbusiness(like)
frouwoman froulikfemale
earhonour earlikhonest
skeadamage skealikharmful
noedconcern noedlikworrisome
godgod godlikdivine
freonfriend freonlikfriendly
besteksense bestekliksensible
herthart hertlikhearty
ôfgriishorror ôfgryslikhorrible
kristenChristian kristlikChristian
noardennorth noardliknorthern
[+] Adjective as base

The suffix -lik can also derive adjectives from other adjectives. Here it is difficult to determine a clear semantic function of the suffix. Examples are given below:


Table 2
Base form Derivation
leafsweet leafliksweet
rykrich ryklikcopious
gekcrazy geklikfunny
goedgood guodlikgentle
fetfat fetlikfatty
wiiswise wyslikwisely
[+] Preposition as base

The suffix -lik can also derive adjectives from a few prepositions. Examples are given below:


Table 3
Base form Derivation
efterbehind efterlikretarded
ynin ynlikprofound
ynin inerlikinternal
útout uterlikoutward

The formations mostly have a metaphorical meaning. In utout > úterlikoutward and ynin > inerlikone's inner self we find the linking element -er-. The words inerlikone's inner self and uterliklooks can also be converted to a noun.

[+] Numeral as base

The suffix -lik can also have a numeral as base. This "pattern" is, however, restricted to only one numeral: ienone, from which can be formed ienliksingle. Other numerals + -lik are ungrammatical: twatwo > *twalik, achteight > *achtlik. The same holds for numeral+-sum, which can also only be added to ienone.

[+] Opaque base

There are quite some words ending in -lik that do not have a base form which is an existing word:

Table 4
Derivation
noflikpleasant
ridlikreasonable
daliklater
pitertuerlikstrange
binlikfair
heislikawful
behyplikdifficult
ûnhjirmlikunbearable
maklikeasy
The word maklik gets a linking element -ge- when it is preceded by the prefix ûn-: ûn-ge-maklikuncomfortable. Possibly, this form is related to gemakease.

[+] Phonological properties

If the base is a particle verb, the stress moves from the particle to the verb, as in: TApasseto apply > taPASlikapplicable.

If the base form ends in /-en/, this is truncated before -lik (noardennorth > noardliknorthern), and if the base form ends in schwa, this is also truncated before -lik (romtespace > romtlikspatial).

When -lik[lək] is added to the base form, the voiced fricative of that base becomes voiceless: gerive - geryflik[ɡəri:və - ɡəriflək]to assist - comfortable and drage - draachlik[dra:gə - draxlək]to bear - bearable. The only two exceptions to this rule are mooglikpossible and deeglikreliable, of which the base forms *moog and *deeg are not recognizable anymore. For more phonological details about this devoicing, see the topic on the phonological domain of Final Devoicing.

To the base form ending in /-ng/[ŋ], a /k/ is added: tagong[taɡoŋ]access > tagonklik[tagoŋklək]accessible, oarsprong[o.əsproŋ]origin > oarspronklik[o.əsproŋklək]original, kening[ke:nɪŋ]king > keninklik[ke:nɪŋklək]royal. A comparable insertion of /k/ occurs in the formation of diminutives.

After base forms ending in /n/ or /m/ one sometimes sees the insertion of /t/. Examples are: eigenown > eigentlikactually, iepenopen > iepentlikopenly, earmpoor > earmtlikpoorly.

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x Dutch influence

Some language users insert a schwa between the stem and -lik. Thus next to deeglikreliable one encounters degelikreliable, or one sees goddelikdivine instead of godlikdivine. This habit must be ascribed to influence from Dutch, where the corresponding suffix is -(e)lijk.

[+] Morphological potential

Adjectives ending in -lik can be nominalized with -heid: freonlikheidfriendliness, oarspronklikheidoriginality, tapaslikheidapplicability. Instead of -heid, -ens is often used to convey distance from Dutch. For example: freonlikensfriendliness, oarspronklikensoriginality, tapaslikensapplicability. See for more details the topic on these suffixes.

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x Literature

This article is based on Hoekstra (1998:134-135). For the verbal bases, Van der Meer (1989) makes a comparison with the suffix -ber.

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Meer, Geart van der1989Oer -ber, -lik, -eftich, -ich, -erich, -sk en -sum : (earste stik: -ber en -lik ferlike)Us wurk: tydskrift foar Frisistyk3843-54
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