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-en
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Present participles formed with the ending -end could be transposed to adjectives. These lost their final /d/ by a general historical phonological process. Later the ending -end became restored under Dutch influence, but some lexicalized cases retained the ending -en. An example is mijeto avoid > mijendiffident. In most derivations with -en, the base form is not or hardly recognizable anymore.

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[+] General properties

A historical deletion process affected final /d/ after /n/, compare Frisian sân with English sand and Frisian wyn with English wind. For a phonological account, see the topic on word-final sequences of a nasal and an obstruent. Present participles, ending in /-end/, also suffered from this change. Due to this, one can find a few adjectives and adverbs of the form 'verb + -en', remnants of an adjectively used former present participle. Examples are given in the table below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
opljeppeto leap up opljeppenhot-tempered
hoedeto keep watch over hoedencautious
razeto rage razen(d)furious
ûntlitteto temper ûntlitten(d)thawy

In a later stage, the form of the ending of the present participle became restored to -end, a form which transpositions to adjectives still show. In contrast to this productive process, formations with -en are typically lexicalized, often with a non-transparent semantics. In most derivations with -en[ən], the base form is not even recognizable anymore. Examples are given below:

Table 2
Derivation
kekenchoosy
rimpenhasty
gystenhasty
trintenneat
dertenplayful
Derivations with -en from verbs are therefore rare and unproductive.

[+] Morphological potential

Derivations with -en from verbs can be input for the suffixes -ens and -heid. Examples are opljeppenens / opljeppenheidshort-temperedness, from opljeppenhot-tempered.

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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:133). More information about the suffix -en based on verbs can be found in Sytstra and Hof (1925:138-139).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
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