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-s
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The suffix -s is an unproductive suffix that is used to create adjectives on the basis of nouns that refer to a material or substance. Thus lekkens, derived from the noun lekkencloth, has the meaning made of cloth, 'consisting of cloth. Adjectives derived from material nouns commonly are formed with help of the suffix -en. The suffix -s is only used after material nouns that end in /en/, /el/ or /je(s)/; resp. linnenlinen > linnenslinen, duffelduffel coat > duffelsa duffel coat, flenjeflannel > flenjesflannel.

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[+] General properties

The suffix is attached to a base that denotes a material or stuff. Derivations with the suffix -s from nouns denoting material or stuff have the following schema: "made of {noun}" or "consisting of {noun}".

Adjectives derived from material nouns are commonly formed with help of the suffix -en. However, if material nouns end in /en/, /el/ or /je(s)/, the suffix -s is used. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
lekkensheet lekkenssheet
linnenlinen linnenslinen
duffelduffel duffelsduffel
flenjeflannel flenjesflannel
sarjeshalloon sarjesshalloon
keekjekhaki keekjeskhaki
The suffix -s also appears after diminutive nouns indicating a pattern of the material: streekjelittle stripe > streekjeswith little stripes ( in streekjes boesgroentsjea striped blouse), rútsjelittle check > rútsjeswith little checks ( in rútsjes jaskea checked coat) and hokjelittle square > hokjeswith little squares ( in hokjes bloeskea squared shirt).

Next to material nouns, the suffix -s can also derive adjectives from nouns denoting coins. They have the meaning 'price indicated by {noun}'. Examples are given in the table below:


Table 2
Base form Derivation
botsenstiver botsenshaving the value of ½ cent
oartsenstiver oartsenshaving the value of ¼ cent
dûbeltsjeten-cent piece dûbeltsjeshaving the value of 10 cent
kwartsje25-cent piece kwartsjeshaving the value of 25 cent
stoerstiver stoertshaving the value of 5 cent
gûneguilder gûnshaving the value of one guilder
daalderone guilder and fifty cent daaldershaving the value of 1 guilder 50

Note that these examples indicate coins that due to the introduction of the euro are not in use anymore. Consequently, these words are not very much in use nowadays. If the derivations in -s are used, it is mostly in fixed expressions, like in daalders plakjean excellent place.

The weight noun pûnhalf a kilogram and the length noun jellena yard can also get the adjectival -s: pûnsweighing half a kilogram and jellenswith the length of a yard.

The suffix -s can also derive adjectives from exclamative forms. Furthermore, it can be found in synthetic compounds together with a numeral + noun.

[+] Phonological properties

In stoerts a /t/ has been inserted between the final /r/ of the base form and /s/ of the suffix. Next to gûns (with truncation of schwa), one can find the form gûnes. The same form with -es can be found in duitcent > duitesone cent and sintcent > sintesa cent. In the last example, there is sometimes a -r- inserted between the base form and the suffix -s: sinters.

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This article is based on Hoekstra (1998:137-138). More details can be found in Hoekstra (1992).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1992Eigenskipswurden op -sFriesch Dagblad11-04Taalsnipels 121
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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