• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-leas
quickinfo

The suffix -leas is used to derive adjectives from nouns with the meaning "without {noun}". For example: wurkwork > wurkleasunemployed, helphelp > helpleashelpless and doelaim > doelleasaimless.

Rokkeleasreckless is the only form in which the base has been lost as an independent word *rokke, which leaves the complex adjective with a non-transparent meaning.

Most of the -leas derivations only occur in the written language, and many are loan translations (calques) from Dutch.

readmore
[+] General properties

The suffix -leas is used to derive adjectives from nouns with the meaning "without {noun}". Examples are given below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
hoophope hoopleashopeless
treastcomfort treastleascomfortless
nammename nammeleasnameless
lûdsound lûdleassoundless, silent
stimvoice stimleasvoiceless
kleurcolour kleurleascolourless
dakroof dakleasroofless, homeless
wardefence warleasdefenceless
wilwill willeasspineless, unresisting
machtpower machtleaspowerless
soarchcare soarchleascarefree
godgod goddeleasirreligious
Many derivations belong to the written language, and are in fact loan translations from Dutch. A current alternative is a description with the preposition sûnderwithout. An example is sûnder lûdwithout sound instead of lûdleassoundless, silent.

[+] Phonological properties

The addition of -leas[lɪ.əs] normally does not change the main stress of the word. The stress falls on the first syllable: MACHTpower > MACHTleaspowerless, DAKroof > DAKleasroofless, homeless.

[+] Linking

Sometimes, and possibly under Dutch influence, the base form gets an additional -e- augment, which is pronounced as /ə/. For example: machtpower > macht-e-leaspowerless, soarchcare > soarg-e-leascarefree, godgod > godd-e-leasirreligious.

[+] Morphological potential

Also to adjectives formed with the suffix -leas a suffix -e can be added, with the meaning "person without {noun}". Example are: wurkleasunemployed > wurkleazeunemployed person, goddeleasirreligious, goddeleazeirreligious person.

Adjectives ending in -leas can likewise be input for nominalizations in -ens or -heid: leafdeleasloveless > leafdeleazens/leafdeleasheidlovelessness , treasteleascheerless > treasteleazens/treasteleasheidcheerlessness. See here for the stress pattern with the suffix -leas in this case.

[hide extra information]
x Voicing

Note that if the suffix is not in word-final position, the voiceless /s/ becomes voiced /z/, which is also reflected in the orthography. Examples are dakleaze and dakleazens.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:139).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • -zaam
    [78%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • -ig
    [77%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • Geographical adjectives ending in -isch
    [77%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes > Geographical adjectives
  • -s
    [77%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • -(e)lijk
    [76%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
  • -ich
    [84%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
  • -sk
    [83%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
  • -ear
    [80%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Verbal suffixes > Noun as base
  • -lik
    [80%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Verb as base
  • -wei
    [78%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • As prepositional complement
    [72%] Frisian > Syntax > Nouns & Noun Phrases > Modification > Relative clauses > Syntactic function
  • PP superlative
    [71%] Frisian > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Comparison by degree > Superlative
  • Complete infinitival clause
    [71%] Frisian > Syntax > Adjective Phrases > Modification and degree quantification > High degree specification > With infinitival clauses
  • The suffix -ste
    [71%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Agreement > Complementiser agreement
  • The PPI-B construction
    [71%] Frisian > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > Expression of irrealis > The verb sille 'shall' > Participio-pro-Infinitivo
Show more ▼
cite
print