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Singularia and pluralia tantum
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A noun is a singulare tantum if it only has a singular form. A plurale tantum noun, by contrast, only appears in the plural form. Singularia tantum nouns typically occur in specific semantic classes. For example, proper names and material nouns often lack plurals. Depending on context, speakers can construct plural forms that are normally missing. Substituting absent singular forms, by contrast, is very unusual.

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[+] Singularia tantum

In Dutch, singularia tantum can be found in the following semantic classes:

Example 1

a. Proper names
Jan
de Dordogne
Maart March
Nederlands Dutch
b. Material nouns
goud gold
zand sand
zeep soap
rijst rice
melk milk
c. Abstract and collective nouns
aandacht attention
arbeid work
genade grace
kou cold
letterkunde literary studies
muziek music
heelal universe
hockey hockey
have possessions
nageslacht offspring
kleding clothes
politie police
vee lifestock

The availability of the plural correlates with the countability of a noun, which in turn correlates with the option to combine the noun with a numeral or the indefinite determiner, which is derived from the numeral éénone(*een/ één goud a gold, *twee gouden two golds).

[+] Pluralia tantum

Pluralia tantum are harder to classify. They occur, for example, in the following semantic fields:

Example 2

a. Proper names, especially geographical names
de Tropen the tropics
de Azoren the Azores
de Alpen the Alps
de Dolomieten the Dolomites
b. Organs (of the body)
hersenen brain
ingewanden intestines, bowels
c. Illness
mazelen easles
pokken smallpox
d. Finance and business
financiën finances
(on)kosten costs
paperassen papers, paperwork
notulen minutes (notes at a meeting)
e. Other
letteren humanities
medicijnen medicine (as a subject or profession)
kapsones irs (as in 'putting on airs')
troebelen troubles, riots
personalia personal details
watten cotton wool
consorten confederates

Some pluralia tantum only exist in particular expressions, such as:

Example 3

aanstalten maken get ready to do sth.
op de hurken zitten squat (on ones haunches / down), crouch (down), sit on ones heels)
iemand bij de lurven pakken get / have someone by the short hairs
iemand in de luren leggen outsmart somebody .

Some nouns may be regarded as pluralia tantum despite having what is historically a corresponding singular. However, singular and plural may fail to match semantically. An example is klerenclothes, which cannot be singularized in a way that preserves its meaning. Its etymological singular kleed means carpet, rug, table cloth, or gown, robe, as well as dress or frock (the latter two are more common in Belgium than in the Netherlands). This particular case is especially interesting because kleed has another plural, kleden, which does match the singular in meaning (carpets, rugs, gowns).

References:
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