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Affixoids
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Affixoids are lexemes that form part of a compound and have a meaning bound to this use. For instance, the noun bloedblood in the adjectival compound bloedmooi blood-beautifulvery beautiful has the meaning 'very', a meaning that is only available for this noun if it occurs as the left-hand part of a compound. Therefore, bloed- is called a prefixoid, as in this use it resembles a prefix: a morpheme the occurrence of which is bound to being part of complex words. The same phenomenon can be observed for right-hand constituents. For instance, in kolenboer coal-farmercoal seller, the meaning of –boer is that of 'merchant', a meaning only available if this noun is the head of a compound. Thus, -boer may be called a suffixoid.

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[+] Prefixoids

In NA compounds in which the noun functions as a prefixoid, its original comparison meaning may have completely disappeared. This is evident from the fact that these nouns attach to any kind of adjective ((Booij 2005), (Booij 2010)), even when a comparison would be semantically odd:

Example 1

bere- (lit. 'bear')
a. beregoed
bear-good
very good
b. bereleuk
bear-nice
very nice
Example 2

bloed- (lit. 'blood')
a. bloedmooi
blood-beautiful
gorgeous
b. bloednerveus
blood-nervous
very nervous
Example 3

dood- (lit. 'dead')
a. doodnormaal
dead-normal
completely normal
b. doodziek
dead-ill
very ill
Example 4

kei- (lit. 'stone, boulder')
a. keileuk
stone-nice
very nice
b. keigoed
stone-good
very good

Compounds in which one part intensifies the meaning of the other are known as "elative compounds" and are discussed in more detail here.

A similar productive use of noun modifiers is found in Dutch NN compounds, where the prefixoids are related to nouns. Examples are:

Example 5

bliksem- (lit. lightning)
a. bliksemactie
lightning-action
lightning action
b. bliksembezoek
lightning-visit
lightning visit
Example 6

kak- (lit. 'shit')
a. kakbuurt
shit-neighbourhood
posh neighbourhood
b. kakmadam
shit-madam
stuck-up lady
Example 7

pracht (lit. 'beauty, glory')
a. prachtvent
beauty-guy
great guy
b. prachtidee
beauty-idea
great idea
Example 8

wereld- (lit. 'world')
a. wereldvrouw
world-woman
fantastic woman
b. wereldkans
world-chance
great chance
Example 9

hoofd- (lit. 'head')
a. hoofdbezwaar
head-objection
main objection
b. hoofddoel
head-goal
main goal
Example 10

kunst- (lit. 'art')
a. kunstboter
art-butter
artificial butter
b. kunstgebit
art-set_of_teeth
false teeth, dentures

Also relevant are the nouns mannetjeman-DIMmale (of an animal species) and vrouwtjewoman-DIMfemale that can be used with animal names.

Some of these prefixoids have been reanalyzed as adverbs or adjectives. This is the case for kutcunt and reuzegiant: kut [kut- x](N)worthless > Dat vind ik kutI hate that, reuze[reuze- x](N)fantastic >  Het uitstapje was reuze The outing was fantastic. The nominal origin of reuze fantastic is reflected by its final schwa which is a linking element, the noun when used as an independent word being reusgiant. The reinterpretation of kut as an adjective has also led to this word having a comparative and a superlative form: kutt-er, kut-st, as in Dit was het kutst van alles This was the worst of all.

[+] Suffixoids

Examples of suffixoids can be found in complex words with –boer or –man as their head. These nouns have the bound meaning 'merchant':

Example 11

-boer (lit. 'farmer')
a. groenteboer
vegetables-farmer
greengrocer
b. kolenboer
coal-farmer
coalman
c. lesboer
lesson-farmer
teacher
d. visboer
fish-farmer
fishmonger
e. sigarenboer
cigar-farmer
tobacconist
Example 12

-man 'lit. 'man')
a. melkman
milk-man
milkman
b. bladenman
magazines-man
paperboy/-man
c. krantenman
newspaper-man
newsagent
d. ijscoman
ice_cream-man
ice cream man

Adjectives may also function as suffixoids, as in vetvrij fat-free and zoutarm salt-poorlow on salt. Here they have the bound but productive meanings 'free from' and 'low on', respectively.

[show extra information]
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The rise of affixoids is and their syntactic reanalysis is discussed in (Van Goethem 2008), (Van Goethem 2011), (Van Goethem and Hiligsmann 2014)(Booij 2014), and in (Hüning and Booij 2014). Even phrases may function as affixoids. An example is huis, tuin, and keuken house, garden and kitchenordinary a phrase that can be used productively with that specific meaning in compounds, such as huis- tuin-en-keuken-tandarts ordinary dentist.

Recommended further reading: (Booij & Hüning 2014), (Van Goethem 2008), (Van Goethem 2011).

References:
  • Booij, Geert2005Compounding and derivation: evidence for construction morphologyDressler, Wolfgang U., Kastovsky, Dieter, Pfeiffer, Oskar E. & Rainer, Franz (eds.)Morphology and its demarcationsAmsterdam / PhiladelphiaJohn Benjamins109-132
  • Booij, Geert2010Construction morphologyOxford/New YorkOxford University Press
  • Booij, Geert & Hüning, Matthias2014Affixoids and constructional idiomsExtending the scope of construction-based grammarDe Gruyter Mouton
  • Booij, Geert & Hüning, Matthias2014Affixoids and constructional idiomsExtending the scope of construction-based grammarDe Gruyter Mouton
  • Goethem, Kristel van2008The interaction between word structure and grammaticalization. Evidence from word-formation with French <i>entre-</i> and Dutch <i>tussen-</i>Word Structure165-82
  • Goethem, Kristel van2008Oud-leerling versus ancien élève. A comparative study of adjectives grammaticalizing into prefixes in Dutch and FrenchMorphology1827-49
  • Goethem, Kristel van2011From adjective to affix in Dutch and French: the influence of word order patterns on grammaticalizationStudies in Language35194-216
  • Goethem, Kristel van2011From adjective to affix in Dutch and French: the influence of word order patterns on grammaticalizationStudies in Language35194-216
  • Goethem, Kristel van & Hiligsmann, Philippe2014When two paths converge: debonding and clipping of Dutch reuze 'lit. giant; great'Journal of Germanic Linguistics2631-64
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