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-er
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The suffix -er can form relational adjectives on the basis of a geographical name. The same suffix is also used to derive inhabitant names. The example below shows the geographical name (a), the name of the inhabitant of that place (b) and the adjectival derivation of the geographical name (c). As can be seen, in (b) and (c) the same form is used.

Example 1

a. Ljouwert
Leeuwarden city
b. Ljouwerter
inhabitant of Ljouwert
c. De Ljouwerter krante
the newspaper of Ljouwert

However, if the geographical name which is referred to is not situated in the province of FryslânFriesland, the adjectival derivation of the geographical name most often gets the suffix -sk or its variant -ysk.

The adjectival suffix -er has a few allomorphs, the most important being -ster and -emer. More information about the suffix, its allomorphs, and many more examples, can be found in the topic on the inhabitant names derived by -er. In the present topic only the adjectival use of geographical names in -er is highlighted.

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[+] General properties

Adjectives derived from geographical names normally have the same form as the name of the inhabitant of that place. That means that most adjectival derivations from geographical names end in -er. Next to the suffix -er[ər], a variant can be used: -ster or -emer. Examples of the adjectival use of geographical names are given in (2):

Example 2

a. it Dokkumer pleintsje
the Dokkum-SUFF square-DIM
the square of Dokkum
b. de Damwâldster skoalle
the Damwâld-SUFF school
the school of Damwâld
c. in Donkerbroekemer famke
a Donkerbroek-SUFF girl
a girl from Donkerbroek
[+] Morphological and syntactic restrictions

Adjectival -er derivations from geographical names cannot be inflected (3a), they cannot get the prefix ûn- (3b) and cannot be used predicatively (3c):

Example 3

a. *de Ljouwertere tsjerken
the churches of Ljouwert
b. *in ûn-Ljouwerter hâlding
an attitude that's not typical for an inhabitant of Ljouwert
c. *Dat is typysk Ljouwerter
That is typical for an inhabitant of Ljouwert

If one wants to use such geographical adjectives with the prefix ûn- or predicatively, the suffix -sk has to be added:

Example 4

a. in ûn-Ljouwerterske hâlding
an attitude that's not typical for an inhabitant of Ljouwert
b. Dat is typysk Ljouwertersk
That is typical for an inhabitant of Ljouwert
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x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:138).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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