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-eftich
quickinfo

-eftich is a suffix that creates adjectives from nouns with the meaning "resembling {noun}". Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
aapmonkey aapeftichapish
boskwood boskeftichwoody
berchmountain bercheftichhilly
spoekghost spoekeftichghostly
riedselriddle riedseleftichmysterious
bernchild berneftichchildish

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[+] General properties

The affix -eftich is productive, new forms occur freely. Examples are facebookfacebook > facebookeftichfacebook-like, computercomputer > computereftichcomputer-like and tillefoantelephone > tillefoaneftichtelephone-like.

-eftich derivations very often have a base form that denotes a person. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 2
Base form Derivation
ingelangel ingeleftichangelic
klierpain in the ass kliereftichcreep
nepertmiser neperteftichmiserly
stumperwretch stumpereftichbunglingly
keardelbig fellow keardeleftichrobust
skoalmasterteacher skoalmastereftichpedantic
The suffix is also often used to compare humans with animals, as in aapmonkey > aapeftichapish and ezeldonkey > ezeleftichasinine.

The derivations baaseftichexcellent'; lit: boss-like, mastereftichtremendous; lit.: master-like and meunstereftichfantastic; lit.: monster-like are used as strengthening adverbs, for example:

Example 1

Us Jildou kin meunstereftich sjonge
our Jildou can monster-SUFF sing
Jildou has an amazing voice

Next to "resembling {noun}", -eftich derivations can also have the meaning "fond of {noun}". Examples are rysrice > ryseftichfond of rice (also ryseftichresembling rice), filmmovie > filmeftichfond of movies (also film-like), pastapasta > pastaeftichfond of pasta (also resembling pasta). However, such derivations with the denotation "fond of {noun}" can only be used negatively in a construction with net sa ... wêzenot so ... to.benot liking ... that much. Examples are:

Example 2

Net sa ryseftich wêze
not so rice-SUFF be
Not liking rice that much
Net sa filmeftich wêze
not so movie-SUFF be
Not liking movies that much

This negative use can also be applied after proper names, for instance hy wie net sa Breuker-eftichhe was not a great fan of the person Breuker. The same negative usage can be found in derivations with -ich and -man.

[+] Comparison with Dutch

In Dutch, the comparable suffix -achtig can also be added to adjectival bases, for example roodred > roodachtigreddish. In Frisian, -eftich derivations from adjectives are not completely impossible, though they are rare. A few examples are readred > readeftichreddish, nijnew > nijeftichnewly and gaufast > gaueftichfast, although Frisian prefers the suffix -ich here.

In Dutch, the -achtig suffix can also be added to verbal stems, for example babbelchat > babbelachtigchatty. This is not possible in Frisian, the suffixes -(er)ich, -sk or -lik are used instead. Compare Dutch twijfelachtigdoubtful with Frisian twifelichdoubtful, Dutch praatachtigtalkative with Frisian praatsktalkative and Dutch vergeetachtigforgetful with Frisian ferjitlikforgetful.

In the oral language, the suffix is also pronounced as -achtich, without doubt under the influence of Dutch suffix -achtig. Thus next to bercheftichhilly one hears berchachtichhilly, next to ingeleftichangelic occurs ingelachtichangelic, next to jongeseftichboyish we find jongesachtichboyish, etcetera.

[+] Phonological properties

-eftich ([ɛftəx]) is a non-cohering suffix; it is syllabified independently of the word stem and it does not cause schwa-deletion after diminutives and foreign words, see mearke-eftichfairy-like and bêzje-eftichbeige-ish. Base forms ending in a voiced [b / d / ɣ / v / z] are pronounced voiceless as [p / t / x / f / s]. Examples are: strobbe/strobə/small child > strobeftich[stropɛftəx]small, sûch/su:ɣ/fool > sûcheftich[su:xɛftəx]stupid and biis/bi.əz/joker > biiseftich[bi.əsɛftəx]mischievous.

-eftich is stress-neutral; the stress of the base is retained, although the affix can carry secondary stress. Examples are REUSeftichgiant-like, FISKeftichfishy, LIEMeftichglue-like and SKURKeftichblackguardly.

[+] Linking

Sometimes, a linking -s- is used between the base form and the -eftich suffix. Examples are given in the table below:


Table 3
Base form Derivation
jongeboy jongeseftichboyish
famkegirl famkeseftichgirlish
manljuman manljuseftichmanly
frouljufemale frouljuseftichfeminine
domenypastor domenyseftichlike a pastor
maitiidspring maitiidseftichspringlike

Next to manljuseftichmanly, maitiidseftichspringlike and domenyseftichlike a pastor the forms maneftichmanly, maitiideftichspringlike and domenyeftichlike a pastor are also found.

[+] Morphological potential

To denote a biological class, the suffix -en is added to the adjective -eftich derivation, the result being a noun. Examples are aapeftichapish > aapeftigenfamily of apes, kateftichcatlike > kateftigenfeline, leeljeëftichlily-like > leeljeëftigenliliaceae.

[show extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:126-127).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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