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-ber
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The suffix -ber derives adjectives from verbs; examples are telleto count > telbercountable and wurkjeto work > wurkberworkable. Adjectives ending in -ber generally refer to possibilities and potentialities; their general meaning can be described as "possible to be {verb}-ed" or "able to {verb}". The different semantic aspects correlate with the transitivity of the base and the semantics of the verbal arguments.

The suffixes -ber and -lik are sometimes interchangeable; to a certain extent they are in competition with each other. The suffix -ber is more productive than -lik.

There are a few -ber derivations based on a noun.

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[+] General and semantic properties

The suffix -ber forms adjectives from verbs. In the case of transitive verbs the process is productive, but this is not the case with ergative and intransitive verbs. The meaning of the -ber-adjectives is "possible to be {verb}-ed" (passive) with transitive verbs, and "able to {verb}" (active) with ergative and intransitive verbs. The base form can consist of simple verbs, prefixed verbs or compounds. Examples with a transitive base are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base Derivation
iteto eat ytberedible
lêzeto read lêsberreadable
drageto carry draachberportable
tilleto lift tilberliftable
mjitteto measure mjitbermeasurable
kontrolearjeto inspect kontrolearberverifiable
beteljeto pay betelberaffordable
ferstelleto adjust ferstelberadjustable
fernimmeto learn fernimbernoticeable
oplosseto dissolve oplosberdissolvable
ôfliedeto lead away (from) ôfliedberderivable
útfiereto do útfierberdoable
talitteto permit talitberpermissible
Here are some examples with ergative and intransitive verbs as their base:
Table 2
Base Derivation
floeieto flow floeiberliquid
ûntploffeto explode ûntplofberexplosive
libje/leveto live leefberliveable
In all likelihood, however, the word leefberliveable is a direct loan from Dutch.

There is a separate group of -ber suffixes with an ergative or intransive verb of movement, for example: geanto go > geanberpassable, wenjeto live > wenberliveable, rideto drive > rydberdriveable and farreto sail > farbernavigable. These derivations have a passive meaning instead of the expected active meaning. The noun to which the derivations are predicated is a place designation. Examples are in geanbere weia passable road and in in wenber hûsa liveable house. All these forms also occur with the prefix be-: begeanberpassable, bewenberhabitable, befarbernavigable, berydberpassable.

Some -ber adjectives have a slightly idiosyncratic meaning, e.g. betelberpayable, affordable whose literary meaning payable is superseded by the conventionalized meaning affordable.

The suffix -ber attaches to native bases. A suffix in the non-native stratum that has comparable properties is -abel.

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x Use of -ber

Derivations with -ber were historically not very common in Frisian. They belonged to the more formal written language. The use of -ber in the oral language is gaining ground in modern Frisian, however. Instead of a -ber derivation, a modal passive construction with a teto infinitive is invoked frequently. Compare Dutch het boek was onvindbaarthe book was untraceablethe book was untraceable with Frisian it boek wie net te finenthe book was not to findthe book was untraceable.

[+] Phonological properties

Adjectives derived with -ber[bər] are usually stressed on the last syllable before the suffix, which means that polysyllabic bases with initial stress are assigned a new stress pattern. To give an example: the stress is on the first syllable in the verb TAlittepermit, but it moves to the second syllable in the derived adjective taLITberpermissible. This regularity holds for all particle verbs, in contrast to prefixed verbs which keep their stress pattern (e.g. wjerLIZZEdisapprove > wjerLISberdisapprovable).

[+] Morphological potential

Adjectives ending in -ber can be negated with the prefix ûn-, for example: tankbergrateful > ûntankberungrateful. Some -ber-adjectives beginning with the negative prefix ûn- seem to lack a positive form without this prefix. For example: *skeinber > ûnskeinberinviolable, *misber > ûnmisberindispensible, *kearber > ûnkearberirresistible, *ûntkomberescapable > ûnûntkomberinescapable and *bedimber > ûnbedimberuncontrollable. Negated forms inherit the particular semantics of their base: ytberedible often means pleasant to eat rather than possible to eat; consequently, ûnytbernot edible usually means impossible to eat rather than unsafe to eat. However, to express negation, a syntactic infinitival construction is preferred. Hence, instead of it is ûnytber one would rather say: it is net te itenit is not to eatit is not edible.

The formations can be nominalized with the suffix -ens (ûntankberensingratitude) and -heid (lêsberreadable > lêsberheidreadability).

[+] Competition between -ber and -lik

The suffixes -ber and -lik, which both have a verb as their base, share the same semantic meaning: "tending to carry out the action referred to in the verb stem". It appears that adjectives ending in -lik generally refer to permanently operative properties, whereas those in -ber refer to possibilities and potentialities. This is illustrated with the following two words, beweechber and beweechlik. Beweechber means 'it can be moved, but it does not need to' and beweechlik rather means 'constantly on the move'. The derivation with -lik can have different gradations: tige beweechlikvery active or te beweechliktoo active. The use of gradations in derivations with -ber is questionable: ?tige beweechber?very moveable or ?te beweechber?too moveable.

In brekketo break > brekberbreakable, however, it is possible to use a gradation, as is shown in the example below:

Example 1

Dy faas is tige brekber
that vase is very breakable
That vase is very breakable
In djoer servys is neat foar my, dat is my te brekber
an expensive service is nothing for me, that is me too breakable
I do not dare to have an expensive service, that is way too breakable, and I am afraid I would break it

This behaviour is understandable since the meaning of the formation brekber has evolved to easy to break.

[+] Noun as base

The -ber derivations based on a noun are listed in the table below:

Table 3
Base form Derivation
tankthanks tankberthankful
tsjinstservice tsjinstberto be of service
earhonour earberhonourable
striidfight striidbermilitant
wartangle warberdiligent
kostcost kostbervaluable
sichtsight sichtbervisible
dieranimal dierberdear
In dierber there is no direct semantic relation between the base form *dier and the -ber derivation.

The suffix -ber based on a noun can be input for further derivation with the suffixes -ens or -heid: tsjinstberto be of service > tsjinstberens / tsjinstberheidhelpfulness, earberhonourable > earberens / earberheiddecency, warberdiligent > warberens / warberheiddiligence.

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x Literature

This article is based on Hoekstra (1998:133-134). Regarding the difference between the suffixes -ber and -lik, see Van der Meer (1989).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Meer, Geart van der1989Oer -ber, -lik, -eftich, -ich, -erich, -sk en -sum : (earste stik: -ber en -lik ferlike)Us wurk: tydskrift foar Frisistyk3843-54
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