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-(e)lings
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The suffix -(e)lings is completely unproductive. It creates adverbs from nouns (for example krúscross > krúslingscrosswise) and verbs (roereto touch > roer(de)lingsclosely). A minor base category are adverbs. The meanings of derivations in -(e)lings are diverse. In general, they indicate a manner that is related to the meaning of base form.

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[+] General properties

The meanings of derivations with -(e)lings are diverse. In general, they indicate a manner that is related to the meaning of the base form. The suffix -(e)lings can derive adverbs from nouns, verbs and, even more marginally, adverbs. These various bases will be discussed in the sections below.

Forms like mûnlingoral, ûnderlingmutual and sûnderlingstranger (without -s) are loans from Dutch. They are treated here as derivations with the suffix -(e)ling.

[+] Noun as base

The suffix -(e)lings can derive adverbs from nouns. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
eacheye eachlingsright in the face
rêchback rêchlings / rêgelingsbackwards
sideside sydlingsindirectly
tiidtime tydlingsgradually
earsarse earslingsmisplaced
einend einlingsfinally
The adverb bek(ke)lingsbackwards has an opaque base *bekback.
[show extra information]
x Hoasfuotlingson socks and ienlingssingly

In hoasfuotlingson socks, the base form is actually hoasfuotling, which means that it would not be a derivation with the suffix -(e)lings. According to Hoekstra (1998:163), hoasfuotlings originated from a confusion of the old-fashioned adverbial wordgroup op hoasfuotlingenon socks with the adverbial derivation -lings.

The derivation ienlingssingly is possibly not a derivation from the numeral ienone + -(e)lings, but of ienling + -s.

[+] Verb as base

The suffix -(e)lings can derive adverbs from verbal stems. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 2
Base form Derivation
trobbeljeto hop trobbelingscontiguous with legs and feet
bûkeljeto jump over a ditch in bent posture with the pole under one arm bûkelingswith a pole under one arm
rêchbrekketo jump over a ditch with the pole diagonally behind rêchbreklingswith the pole diagonally behind
roereto touch roer(de)lingsalmost touching (in a move)
Mostly, the variant -lings is chosen. In roerdelings, we see insertion of /d/ after /r/.

[+] Adverb as base

Adjectival/adverbial bases are quite marginal. There are only two examples, which can possibly best be interpreted as having been derived from an adverb. These are dwerstransverse > dwerslingssideways and koartshort > koartlingsrecently. We see that only the variant -lings is involved here.

[+] Phonological properties

There is no clear rule when to use schwa in -(e)lings[(ə)lIŋs]. Both forms can occur, however with the form without -e- having a certain preference.

The suffix -(e)lings behaves like a phonological word of its own, and thus receives secondary stress, whereas the main stress on the base word is preserved.

[+] Morphological potential

-(e)lings is unproductive in Frisian. It does not feed further word formation, apart from tydlingsgradually, which can be the base for the suffix -wei: in tydlingsweigradually.

[show extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:163-164).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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