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The third construction
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If the two verbs are not adjacent, they may behave as if some form of clause union had taken place. This type of construction is referred to as the third construction:

Example 1

?Omdat er har doe pas doarde mei har wurk te helpen
because he her then only dared with her work to help
Because only then he dared to help her with her work

In the example above, the arguments of the main verb helpehelp are found on either side of the selecting verb doaredare. Clause-union entails that the middle field (also referred to as extended projection) of a selected (main) verb is joined at some level of representation to the middle field of a selecting verb. As a result, arguments of the main verb can appear in the domain (or middle field or extended projection) of the selecting verb, which is also the case when verb clusters are formed.

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In Dutch the third construction may exhibit the IPP-effect, but this effect is not present in Frisian, neither in the domain of the third construction nor outside it. The third construction is found, as we saw in (1), with verbs such as doaredare which is usually found in a clause-union structure or a verb cluster. In addition, the third construction is also found with verbs which are often found to select an independent clause, such as mienesuppose . In the example below, this verb selects an independent clause:

Example 2

Omdat se juster miende hjoed mei him oer it probleem prate te kinnen
because she yesterday supposed today with him about the problem talk to can
Because yesterday she supposed that she could talk with him about the problem today

In the example below, this verb is accompanied by a third construction:

Example 3

Omdat se mei him miende oer it probleem prate te kinnen
because she with him supposed about the problem talk to can
Because she supposed that she could talk with him about the problem

The Adposition Phrase (PP) arguments of the main verb appear on either side of the tensed verb. They cannot appear in between pratetalk and kinnencan because clause-union and verb raising are obligatory for the selecting verb. Furthermore, it seems that temporal adverbs are interpreted in the clause in which they are found: the following is ungrammatical:

Example 4

*Omdat se juster hjoed miende mei him oer it probleem prate te kinnen
because she yesterday today supposed with him about the problem talk to can
Because yesterday she supposed that she could talk with him about the problem today

If the second time adverb hjoedtoday could be interpreted in (reconstructed to) the embedded infinitival complement, this sentence would be grammatical. The next question is what happens in case the arguments of the main verb are distributed over both temporal domains, as in the example below:

Example 5

Omdat se juster mei him miende hjoed oer it probleem prate te kinnen
because she yesterday with him supposed today about the problem talk to can
Because yesterday she supposed that she could talk with him about the problem today

If the sentence above is grammatical, then it must be concluded that the PP argument mei himwith him is interpreted inside the infinitival clause but the time adverb justeryesterday is not. A to-infinitival verb must be realised to the right of its selecting verb, in the case of verbal to-infinitives. As a result, the following sentence is ungrammatical:

Example 6

*Omdat er my dat boek ferbiede te kinnen miende te lêzen
because he me that book forbid to can supposed to read
Because he supposed that he could forbid me to read that book

Here the tensed verb selects the to-infinitival cluster ferbiede te kinnenforbid to can and this cluster must be found to the right of it, as in the grammatical example in (7) (and not to the left of it, as in the ungrammatical example in (6)):

Example 7

Omdat er my dat boek miende ferbiede te kinnen te lêzen
because he me that book supposed forbid to can to read
Because he supposed that he could forbid me to read that book

For the same reason, the following is also ungrammatical:

Example 8

*Omdat er my dat boek ferbiede miende wolle te kinnen te lêzen
because he me that book forbid supposed want to can to read
Because he supposed that he could want to forbid me to read that book

Here the verb ferbiedeforbid is not part of the to-cluster of verbs wolle te kinnenwant to can, and these two auxiliaries obligatorily induce verb-raising: the verb ferbiedeforbid has been left out of this cluster in violation of this requirement, given the further obligatoriness of the rightward placement of to-infinitival verbs (with accompanying auxiliaries in case these induce verb-raising). In the case of these complex sentences, there may be conflicting judgments.

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x Literature

More details can be found in De Haan (1993) and Reuland (1990).

References:
  • Haan, Germen J. de1993The Third Construction in FrisianAbraham, Werner & Bayer, Josef (eds.)DialektsyntaxOpladen117-139
  • Reuland, Eric1990Infinitieven in het Fries en de aard van functionele categorieënInterdisciplinair Tijdschrift voor Taal- en Tekstwetenschap9287-309
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