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3.3.2.4.3. Disjunctive coordination ( of'or')
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Subsection I will show that constructions in which two NPs coordinated by the disjunctive conjunction of'or' are followed by a relative clause, are often ambiguous between a coordinated antecedent reading, in which the relative clause restricts both conjuncts, and a non-coordinated antecedent reading, in which the relative clause restricts only the second conjunct. Subsection II will show that constructions with a coordinated antecedent reading may be ambiguous in their turn as well, allowing both a one-set and a two-set reading. This gives rise to a three-way ambiguity. Subsection III will discuss disjunctively coordinated antecedents in generic contexts, and Subsection IV will discuss relative constructions in which the conjuncts of the antecedent differ in nominal features. We will complete the discussion in V by drawing a number of general conclusions.

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[+]  I.  Coordinated versus non-coordinated antecedents

Constructions with NPs coordinated by the conjunction of'or' that are followed by a relative clause often allow both a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. The examples in this subsection may receive a analysis similar to the corresponding examples with the conjunction en'and' from Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub I; cf. the discussion of (381) and (387). We should keep in mind, however, that matters are somewhat complicated by the fact that examples with a coordinated antecedent reading sometimes allow two different interpretations, the so-called one-set and two-set readings, which will be discussed in the next subsection.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

If noun phrases are coordinated by means of the disjunctive conjunction of'or' and followed by a restrictive relative clause, ambiguity may arise between a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. Whether ambiguity does indeed arise depends on the nature of the conjuncts: if the conjuncts share the same article, only the coordinated antecedent reading is available; if more articles are present, ambiguity may arise for some people. Of course, indefinite plurals are somewhat special given that they have articles that are phonetically empty.

[+]  1.  Coordinated indefinite plurals

The examples in (458) show that ambiguity may arise with coordinated indefinite plurals. The scope of the relative clause is indicated by bracketing: in the primeless examples the relative clause restricts both conjuncts, and in the primed ones only the second conjunct. Example (458a), for instance, expresses that any person who is a boy or a girl and who is late will be punished, whereas (458a') expresses that any person who is a boy will be punished, or any person who is a girl and who is late. Similarly, (458b) expresses that we may keep dogs or cats provided that they do not cause much trouble, whereas (458b') expresses that we may keep either cats, or dogs that do not cause much trouble.

Example 458
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. Jongens of [meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
b. We mogen [katten of honden die niet veel overlast geven] houden.
  we  may   cats or dogs  which  not  much trouble  give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep cats or dogs that do not give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen katten of [honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

In speaking, the two readings will be disambiguated by means of intonation. On the coordinated antecedent reading in the primeless examples, the coordinated antecedent is pronounced as a single intonation unit. On the non-coordinated antecedent reading, on the other hand, the conjunction of'or' is preceded by an intonation break and extra emphasis is given to the second head noun ( meisjes'girls' and honden'dogs'), while the entire second conjunct, including the relative clause, will be pronounced as a single intonation unit.

[+]  2.  Coordinated definite plurals

If the plural conjuncts are definite, as in (459), speakers may have difficulty in obtaining the coordinated antecedent reading in the primeless examples. In this respect the examples with the disjunctive conjunction behave just like the corresponding examples with the conjunction en'and' discussed in 3.3.2.4.2, sub I, example (380).

Example 459
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? [De jongens of de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys or the girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. De jongens of [de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
b. ? We mogen [de katten of de honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the cats or the dogs  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cats or the dogs which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de katten of [de honden die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

Just as in the case of coordination with en'and', the fact that the primeless examples in (459) are marked may be related to the fact that these examples compete with the examples in (460a&b), in which the two conjuncts share the same article. Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub I has shown that examples with a single article may be preferred given that they can be analyzed without postulating any elided material. Coordinated plurals with a single definite article do not allow the exclusive reading; the account given in Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub III, for the corresponding examples with en'and' can also be applied to these examples.

Example 460
Coordinated plurals with one definite article
a. [De jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys or girls  who too late come  are  punished
a'. *? De jongens of [meisjes die te laat kwamen], werden gisteren gestraft.
b. We mogen [de honden of katten die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the dogs or cats  which not much trouble give  keep
b'. *? We mogen de honden of [katten die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
[+]  3.  Coordinated indefinite singulars

The examples in (461) show that in the case of coordinated indefinite singulars the non-coordinated antecedent reading is available, provided at least that the two conjuncts have the same gender; see Subsection IVA for cases in which the gender is different. The non-coordinated antecedent readings are harder to obtain. Note that these examples only allow a generic interpretation.

Example 461
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. [Een scholier of een student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  a pupil or a student  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'A pupil or a student who has registered gets a reduction.'
a'. ?? Een scholier of [een student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. [Een leraar of een leerling die te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  a teacher or a student  who too late comes  is  punished
  'A teacher or a student who is late will be punished.'
b'. ?? Een leraar of [een leerling die te laat komt] wordt gestraft.

The two conjuncts may also share the indefinite article. Example (462a) shows that the coordinated antecedent reading is fully acceptable, and, in fact, it may be the case that this generic example is even more natural than the generic examples in (461a&b). Example (462b) shows that the coordinated noun phrase can also be given a specific interpretation. In this use, the coordinated noun phrase refers to a single person; the speaker refers to a specific person but does not know whether that person is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts, which accounts for the unacceptability of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in the primed example. If we assume that the generic example in (462a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (462a').

Example 462
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article
a. [Een student of scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt altijd korting.
  a student or pupil  who refl has registered  gets  always  discount
  'A student or pupil who has registered always gets a reduction.'
a'. * Een student of [scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt altijd korting.
b. [Een student of scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg daar korting.
  a student or pupil  who refl had registered  got  there  discount
  'A student or pupil who has registered got a reduction there.'
b'. * Een student of [scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg daar korting.
[+]  4.  Coordinated definite singulars

As in the case of coordinated definite plural, the coordinated antecedent reading is not accepted by all speakers. The non-coordinated antecedent reading, on the other hand, is fully acceptable.

Example 463
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. ? [De scholier of de student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'The pupil or the student who has registered gets a reduction.'
a'. De scholier of [de student die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. ? [De leraar of de leerling die te laat komt] wordt gestraft.
  the teacher or the student  who too late comes  is  punished
  'The teacher or the student who is late will be punished.'
b'. De leraar of [de leerling die te laat is] wordt gestraft.

Example (464a) shows that generic examples like (463a&b) improve if the two conjuncts share the same article. The non-coordinated antecedent reading in (464a'&b'), on the other hand, is completely excluded. The coordinated noun phrase in (464b) refers to a single individual, of whom the speaker does not know whether he is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts, which accounts for the unacceptability of (463b'). If we assume that the generic example in (464a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (464a').

Example 464
Coordinated singular with one definite article
a. [De student of scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  the student or pupil  who refl has registered  gets  discount
  'The student or pupil who has registered will get a reduction.'
a'. * De student of [scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
b. [De student of scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg korting.
  the student or pupil  who refl had registered  got  discount
b'. * De student of [scholier die zich had ingeschreven], kreeg korting.
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

If two elements are coordinated by means of of'or' and followed by a non-restrictive relative clause, ambiguity may arise between a coordinated and a non-coordinated antecedent reading. As in the case of restrictive relative clauses, the question as to whether ambiguity does indeed arise depends on the nature of the two conjuncts: if the conjuncts share the same article, only the coordinated antecedent reading is available; if more articles are present, ambiguity arises. Indefinite plurals are somewhat special given that they have articles that are phonetically empty.

[+]  1.  Coordinated indefinite plurals

With coordinated indefinite plurals both readings seem available, although the coordinated antecedent reading seems to be preferred. Note that the primeless examples involving inclusive of'or' are semantically more or lesss equivalent to the corresponding construction with the conjunction en'and', which may be preferred by some speakers.

Example 465
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  students or pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'Students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
a'. ? Studenten of [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
b. We mogen [honden of katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   dogs or cats  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep dogs or cats, which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. ? We mogen honden of [katten, die niet veel overlast geven] houden.
[+]  2.  Coordinated definite plurals

With coordinated plurals with two definite articles, the two readings seem to be equally acceptable. Again, some speakers may find the primeless examples somewhat marked compared to the corresponding constructions with en'and'.

Example 466
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. [De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or the pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
a'. De studenten of [de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
b. We mogen [de honden of de katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we  may   the dogs or the cats  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cats or the dogs, which donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de honden of [de katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

If the two conjuncts share the same definite article, the result is always marginal at best. The non-coordinated antecedent reading is completely excluded when the sentence is unambiguously non-generic, as in (467b').

Example 467
Coordinated plurals with one article
a. ? [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
a'. * De studenten of [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students  or   pupils  who little money have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. ? [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hadden], kregen korting.
  the students or pupils  who little money had  got  discount
  'The students or pupils, who didnʼt have much money, got a reduction.'
b'. * De studenten of [scholieren, die niet weinig hadden], kregen korting.
  the students  or   pupils  who little money had  got  discount
[+]  3.  Coordinated indefinite singulars

The examples in (468) show that in the case of coordinated indefinite singulars the non-coordinated antecedent reading is available, provided at least that the two conjuncts have the same gender; see Subsection IVA for cases in which the gender is different. The non-coordinated antecedent readings seem somewhat harder to obtain.

Example 468
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. [Een student of een scholier, die weinig geld heeft/hebben], krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who little money  has/have  gets discount
  'A student or a pupil, who has/have little money, gets a reduction.'
a'. ? Een student of [een scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
b. We mogen [een hond of een kat, die niet veel overlast geeft/geven], houden.
  we may   a dog or a cat  which not much trouble gives/give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep a dog or a cat, which doesnʼt give much trouble.'
b'. ? We mogen een hond of [een kat, die niet veel overlast geeft], houden.

With indefinite singular antecedents, the two conjuncts may also share the indefinite article. The coordinated antecedent reading is fully acceptable, and, in fact, it may be the case that the generic example in (469a) is even more natural than the generic example in (468a). Note in passing that, although judgments are again delicate, it seems that use of the plural form of the finite verb in the relative clause is not possible in (469a). The preferred interpretation of (469a) is generic, but (469b) shows that the coordinated noun phrase can also be given a specific interpretation, in which case it refers to a single person; the speaker refers to a specific person but does not know whether that person is a pupil or a student. For this reason, the restrictive relative clause must be construed with both conjuncts. If we assume that the generic example in (469a) has a similar indeterminacy, we also account for the impossibility of the non-coordinated antecedent reading in (469a').

Example 469
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article
a. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money has  gets  always  discount
  'A student or pupil, who has little money, always gets a reduction.'
a'. * Een student of [scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
b. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money had  got  yesterday  discount
  'A student or pupil, who had little money, got a reduction yesterday.'
b'. * Een student of [scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
[+]  4.  Coordinated definite singulars

The non-generic examples in (470) are all acceptable. The coordinated constructions with a single definite article in (471), on the other hand, are more restricted: they are perhaps marginally possible in a generic context like (471a); if the coordinated noun phrase has a specific reading, as in (471b), the result is bad. The non-coordinated antecedent reading in the primed examples is also ungrammatical.

Example 470
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. [De student of de scholier, die (allebei) weinig geld hebben], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who both little money have  gets  discount
  'The student or the pupil, who (both) have little money, gets a reduction.'
a'. De student of [de scholier, die niet zo veel geld heeft], krijgt korting.
b. We mogen [de hond of de kat, die (beide) niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we may   the dog or the cat  which both not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the dog or the cat, which (both) donʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de hond of [de kat, die niet veel overlast geeft], houden.
Example 471
Coordinated singular with one definite article
a. ?? [De student of scholier, die niet zo veel geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
  the student or pupil  who not so much money has  gets  always  discount
  'The student or pupil, who didnʼt have much money, always gets a reduction.'
a'. * De student of [scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt altijd korting.
b. * [De student of schoier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
  the student or pupil  who little money had  got  yesterday  discount
b'. * De student of [scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg gisteren korting.
[+]  II.  One-set versus two-set reading (inclusive versus exclusive of'or')

Examples with a coordinated antecedent reading are often ambiguous due to the fact that the disjunctive conjunction of'or' allows two readings. These two readings, the inclusive, one-set reading and the exclusive, two-set reading, can be described as in (472). We will see in the two subsections below that the ambiguity arises with both restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses.

Example 472
a. Inclusive of (one-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves a single set, the members of which are either N1 or N2; the relative clause modifies this single set and the predicate in the main clause holds for this single set.
b. Exclusive óf (two-set reading): The denotation of [N1 of N2] involves two separate sets, one set whose members are N1 and one set whose members are N2: the relative clause is interpreted in such a way that it modifies each set separately, and the predicate in the main holds for only one of these sets.

The two types of of differ in that exclusive óf is often stressed, which is indicated by an accent, which is normally not found in written language, and can be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...'; inclusive of, on the other hand, is normally not stressed, accent falling on the new information in the relative clause, and cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

The availability of the inclusive (one-set), and the exclusive (two-set) reading depends on the nature of the coordinated antecedent of the relative clause. First, consider example (473a), in which the antecedent is a definite coordinated noun phrase with a single article. This example only yields the inclusive reading due to the fact that we are dealing with a single DP, and hence there is only a single referent set. That exclusive óf cannot be used DP-internally is also clear from the fact illustrated in (473b) that use of the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...' leads to ungrammaticality.

Example 473
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
b. * De [NP [óf jongens óf meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.

      Now compare example (473a) to example (474a), in which each conjunct is associated with its own article. The preferred reading for this (marked) construction is the exclusive reading, which is consistent with the fact illustrated by (474b) that the disjunctive conjunction can be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or', which unambiguously shows that exclusive óf can be used to coordinate DPs. If these examples are indeed grammatical, they are plausibly derived by means of backward conjunction reduction. Recall from Subsection I that it is actually the non-coordinated antecedent reading which is best.

Example 474
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. % [De jongens die te laat komen] óf [de meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the boys  or   the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b. % Óf de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  either the boys or the girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'Either the boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'

For the coordinated definite singulars in (475a) the exclusive reading is also clearly preferred to the inclusive reading, although, again, it is the non-coordinated antecedent reading that is actually best. Note that, for convenience, we will no longer indicate the elided relative clause in the first conjunct.

Example 475
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles (same gender)
a. % De student óf de scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  the pupil or the student  who refl has registered  gets  the free ticket
b. % Óf de student óf de scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either the pupil or the student  who refl has registered  gets  the free ticket
  'Either the pupil or the student who registered will get the free ticket.'

      Although, for reasons to be discussed in Subsection III, the inclusive reading is highly preferred in the case of coordinated indefinites as in (476), the exclusive reading seems to be marginally possible as well. On the first reading, the sentence expresses that there is a single antecedent set, whose members are either boys or girls, and it is predicated of the members of this set who are late that they will be punished. On the second reading, there are two sets of person that are late consisting of, respectively, boys and girls, and the sentence expresses that only the members of one of these sets will be punished. The ambiguity arises due to the fact that the word order is compatible both with assuming that of coordinates some noun phrase internal projection and with assuming that it coordinates DPs.

Example 476
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft, maar niet hun ouders.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are punished  but not their parents
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished, but their parents wonʼt.'
b. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'

Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles seem to behave in ways essentially similar to their plural counterparts, the only difference being that the sets in question consist of only one member: example (477a) illustrates the inclusive reading, and (477b) illustrates the exclusive reading. The two coordinated definite singulars in (477a) form a one-member set interpretation with a generic reading: any pupil or student who has registered will be given a complimentary ticket. In (477b), on the other hand, two one-member sets are coordinated, with the relative clause restricting both elements separately. The predication in the main clause, however, holds for only one of these sets: “either a pupil who has enrolled will receive the free ticket, or a student who has enrolled”.

Example 477
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles (same gender)
a. Een scholier of een student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt een vrijkaart.
  a pupil or a student  who refl has registered  gets  a free.ticket
  'A pupil or a student who has registered will get a complimentary ticket.'
b. (Óf) een scholier óf een student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either a pupil  or  a student  who refl has registered  gets the free.ticket
  'Either a pupil or a student who has registered will get the free ticket.'

Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article allow only the inclusive reading, which is clear from the fact that the disjunctive conjunction cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or'. In this respect they behave like the coordinated plurals with a single definite article in (473). Note that some speakers may prefer the generic example in (478a) to the one in (477a).

Example 478
Coordinated singulars with one indefinite article (same gender)
a. Een scholier of student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt een vrijkaart.
  a pupil or student  who refl has registered  gets  a free.ticket
  'A pupil or a student who has registered will get the complimentary ticket.'
b. * (Óf) een scholier óf student die zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt de vrijkaart.
  either a pupil  or a student  who refl has registered  gets the free.ticket
  'Either a pupil or a student who has registered will get the complimentary ticket.'

      The discussion above suggests that the exclusive (two-set) and the inclusive (one-set) reading may involve coordination at different levels. The exclusive reading arises from the structure in (479a), which involves coordination at the level of DP and some form of backward conjunction reduction, whereas the inclusive reading involves coordination of projections within the noun phrase (NP or NumP); see Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub II, for a discussion of these analyses.

Example 479
a. [DP D [NP [... N ...]i [RC1RELi ... ti ... ]]] of [DP D [NP [... N...]j [RC2 RELj ... tj ... ]]]
b. [DP D [NP [[ ... N ...] of [ ...N ...]]i [RC RELi ... ti ... ]]]
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

Ambiguity between the inclusive (one-set) and the exclusive (two-set) reading may also arise in non-restrictive relative clause constructions. As in the case of the restrictive relative clauses the availability of the two readings depends on the nature of the coordinated antecedent of the relative clause. If we are dealing with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, only the inclusive reading is available. As in the case of restrictive relative clauses, this is not surprising given that we are dealing with a single DP and hence there is only a single referent set. This is compatible with our earlier conclusion that exclusive óf cannot be used DP-internally given that use of the discontinuous disjunction óf ... óf ...'either ... or ...' leads to ungrammaticality. Note that some speakers may find example (480a) with inclusive of'or' marked compared to the corresponding construction with en'and', which is semantically more or lesss equivalent to it.

Example 480
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. [De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  have  get  discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. * De óf studenten óf scholieren, die niet zo veel geld hebben, krijgen korting.

      Example (480a) contrasts sharply with (466a), repeated here as (481a), in which each conjunct is associated with its own article. The preferred reading of this example is the exclusive reading, which is shown by fact that the conjunction of can be readily replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... ó f'either ... or', as illustrated by (481b). We are dealing with two DPs, each referring to its own referent set, and the sentence expresses that a discount is given to the members of only one of the two sets, that is, either to the students or to the pupils. The constructions with two definite singular elements in (482) also seem to favor the exclusive reading.

Example 481
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? [De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who  little money  have  get discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de studenten óf [de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  or the students  or the pupils who little money have  get discount
  'Either the students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
Example 482
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles
a. ?? [De student of de scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  the student or the pupil  who little money has  gets discount
  'The student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de scholier óf [de student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either the student  or  the pupil  who little money has  gets discount
  'Either the student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'

      In the case of the coordinated indefinite plurals in (483), the inclusive reading is preferred to the exclusive reading, which is marginally possible at best. Example (483a) expresses that we are with a single set of students and pupils, who all receive a discount: on this reading it is possible to express contrast between the single coordinated antecedent set and some other set. Again, some speakers may find example (483a) with inclusive of'or' marked compared to the corresponding construction with en'and', which is semantically more or lesss equivalent to it.

Example 483
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. [Studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting (maar docenten niet).
  students or pupils  who  little money  have  get discount (but  teachers  not)
  'Students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction (but teachers donʼt).'
b. ?? (Óf) studenten óf [scholieren, die weinig geld hebben], krijgen korting.
  Either students  or   pupils  who little money have  get discount

      Coordinated singulars with one article allow only the inclusive reading: it is claimed that anyone who is a student or a pupil will get a discount. That the exclusive reading is not possible is also clear from the fact that the disjunctive conjunction cannot be replaced by the discontinuous disjunction of ... óf'either ... or'. The examples in (484) therefore behave just like the coordinated plurals with a single definite article in (480).

Example 484
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles
a. [Een student of scholier, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  a student or pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'A student or a pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. * [(Óf) een scholier óf student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either a student or a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount

If there are more articles present, on the other hand, both the inclusive and the exclusive seem available. The preferred reading of (485a) is the same (generic) inclusive reading that we find in (484a), which might be the preferred form for some speakers. Nevertheless, the exclusive reading also seems possible, according to which two singleton sets are coordinated, with the predication in the main clause holding for only one of these sets.

Example 485
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles
a. [Een student of een scholier, die weinig geld heeft/hebben], krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who little money has/have  gets  discount
  'A student or a pupil, who doesnʼt/donʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. ?? [(Óf) een scholier óf een student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either a student or a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'Either a student or a pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'

Although it is somewhat hard to obtain reliable judgments, it seems that in the case of the inclusive reading in (485a) the finite verb of the relative clause can appear either in the singular or in the plural. This is unexpected: since we are dealing with disjunctive coordination of two singular elements, we would expect the finite verb of the relative clause to be in the singular, just like the finite verb of the main clause. Note in this connection that the possibility of adding the adverbial elements allebei'both' in (486) suggests that the plural form must indeed be considered acceptable.

Example 486
Een student of een scholier, die allebei weinig geld hebben/*heeft, krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who both little money have/has  gets discount
'A student or a pupil, both of whom donʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
[+]  III.  Generic/non-generic contexts

The previous subsection has shown that constructions with coordinated antecedent can be used both in generic and non-generic contexts. This subsection examines whether there are restrictions on the use of disjunctively coordinated antecedents that are related to genericity.

[+]  A.  Restrictive relative clauses

Example (487) provides cases with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, which only allow a coordinated antecedent reading. The use of the present tense in (487a) seems to favor a generic reading, but (487b), in which the finite verb of the relative is in the past tense, shows that these coordinated plurals can also be found in non-generic contexts. In this respect, the examples in (487) do not differ from examples without a coordinated antecedent: De jongens die te laat komen/kwamen worden gestraft.

Example 487
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  come  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late will be punished.'
b. De [NP [jongens of meisjes]i diei te laat kwamen], worden gestraft.
  the   boys or the girls  who  too late  came  are  punished
  'The boys or the girls who were late will be punished.'

The same thing holds for coordinated plurals with two definite articles on their inclusive reading: although the examples may be marginal for some speakers, example (488a) clearly prefers a generic interpretation, whereas (488a') has a non-generic interpretation. On the exclusive, two-set reading, on the other hand, the generic interpretation seems to be blocked: both (488b) and (488b') are interpreted non-generically. This seems to be a more generally property of sentences with exclusive disjunction. Recall that, for convenience, we no longer indicate the elided relative clause in the first conjunct.

Example 488
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. % De jongens of de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
a'. % De jongens of de meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b. % (Óf) de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft
  either the boys  or  the girls  who too late come  are  punished
b'. % (Óf) de jongens óf de meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  either the boys  or  the girls  who too late came  are  punished

      The (a)-examples in (489) show that disjunctively coordinated indefinite plurals cannot be used in non-generic contexts on their (preferred) inclusive reading, and, again, we see that there is no difference in this respect with examples without a coordinated antecedent: Jongens die te laat komen/*kwamen worden gestraft. The (b)-examples in (489) with the (dispreferred) exclusive reading are marginal at best: this follows from our earlier observations that exclusive óf triggers a non-generic reading and that indefinite plural subjects in examples such as (489) must be interpreted generically. These two requirements cannot be met at the same time.

Example 489
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late come  are punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. * Jongens of meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  boys or girls  who too late came  are punished
b. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat komen, worden gestraft.
  either boys or girls  who too late come  are punished
  'Boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
b'. ?? (Óf) jongens óf meisjes die te laat kwamen, worden gestraft.
  either boys or girls  who too late came  are punished
[+]  B.  Non-restrictive relative clauses

Example (490) provides cases with coordinated plurals with a single definite article, which only allow a coordinated antecedent reading. The use of the present tense in (490a) seems to favor a generic reading, but (490b) shows that these coordinated plurals can also be found in non-generic contexts.

Example 490
Coordinated plurals with a single definite article
a. De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  have  get  discount
  'The students or pupils, who have little money, get a reduction.'
b. De studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hadden, kregen korting.
  the students or pupils  who  little money  had  got  discount
  'The students or pupils, who had little money, got a reduction.'

      Giving judgments seems a bit harder in the case of (491) and (492) given that the inclusive reading in the (a)-examples is marked anyway, but it seems that the generic and non-generic reading give rise to more or lesss the same result. The exclusive reading in the (b)-examples is preferred: these do not allow a generic reading, which is due to the fact that exclusive óf does not seem to be compatible with it.

Example 491
Coordinated plurals with two definite articles
a. ? De studenten of de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen/kregen korting.
  the students or the pupils  who little money have  get/got discount
  'The students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get/got a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de studenten óf de scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen/kregen korting.
  or the students  or  the pupils  who little money have  get/got discount
  'Either the students or the pupils, who donʼt have much money, get/got a reduction.'
Example 492
Coordinated singulars with two definite articles
a. ?? De student of de scholier, die weinig geld heeft, krijgt/kreeg korting.
  the student or the pupil  who little money has  gets/got  discount
  'The student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets/got a reduction.'
b. (Óf) de scholier óf de student, die weinig geld heeft, krijgt/kreeg korting.
  either the student  or  the pupil  who little money has  gets/got discount
  'Either the student or the pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets/got a reduction.'

      Like all indefinite plurals, the coordinated indefinite plurals in (493a) must normally be interpreted generically. The markedness of (493b) is therefore due to the fact that exclusive ó f is not compatible with this generic reading.

Example 493
Coordinated indefinite plurals
a. Studenten of scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen korting.
  students or pupils  who  little money  have  get  discount
  'Students or pupils, who donʼt have much money, get a reduction.'
b. ?? Óf studenten óf scholieren, die weinig geld hebben, krijgen korting.
  either  students  or pupils  who little money have  get discount

Example (494a) with coordinated indefinite singulars is also preferably interpreted generically. Example (494b), on the other hand, seems incompatible with this reading; the noun phrases are rather construed specifically.

Example 494
Coordinated singulars with two indefinite articles
a. [Een student of een scholier, die weinig geld heeft/hebben], krijgt korting.
  a student or a pupil  who little money has/have  gets  discount
  'A student or a pupil, who doesnʼt/donʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
b. [(Óf) een scholier óf een student, die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  either a student or a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'Either a student or a pupil, who doesnʼt have much money, gets a reduction.'
[+]  IV.  Mixed antecedents

This subsection is concerned with relativized constructions in which the two conjuncts of the coordinated antecedent differ with regard to gender, number, definiteness and/or quantification. We will see that many of these constructions are not ambiguous, as the form of the relative pronoun (gender, number) allows only one reading.

[+]  A.  Gender

Noun phrases that differ in gender cannot form a coordinated antecedent of a restrictive relative clause, due to the fact that there will always be a mismatch between the relative pronoun and one of the conjuncts. In (495a&b), for example, the non-neuter pronoun die'who/that' does not match the gender feature of the neuter noun meisje and the neuter relative pronoun dat'who/that' does not match the gender of the non-neuter noun jongen. Note that this gender distinction cannot be neutralized by using the plural relative pronoun die'who/that' since that would create a mismatch in number with the full coordinated noun phrase; disjunctive coordination of singular noun phrases results in singular DPs. As a result, only the non-coordinated antecedent readings in the primed examples of (495) are acceptable.

Example 495
Coordinated singulars: different genders
a. * [Een jongen of een meisje die/dat te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  a boy or a girl  who too late comes  is  punished
a'. Een jongen of [een meisje dat te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  a boy  or   a girl  who too late comes  is  punished
  'A boy or a girl who is late will be punished.'
b. * [De jongen of het meisje die/dat te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  the boy or the girl  who too late comes  is  punished
b'. De jongen of [het meisje dat te laat komt], wordt gestraft.
  the boy  or   the girl  who too late comes  is  punished
  'The boy or the girl who is late will be punished.'

The gender distinction in the pronoun is of course neutralized if the conjuncts are plural. As a result the examples in (496) do allow the coordinated antecedent reading: the two (a)-examples with indefinite conjuncts are both impeccable; the same thing seems to hold for the (b)-examples, although we have seen that examples such as (496b) are rejected by some speakers.

Example 496
Coordinated plurals: different genders
a. [Jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden altijd gestraft.
  boys or girls who  too late come  are  always  punished
  'Boys or girls who are late are always punished.'
a'. Jongens of [meisjes die te laat komen], worden altijd gestraft.
b. % [De jongens of de meisjes die te laat komen], worden altijd gestraft.
  the boys or the girls  who too late come  are  always  punished
  'The boys or the girls who are late are always punished.'
b'. De jongens of [de meisjes die te laat komen], worden altijd gestraft.

Examples (462) and (464) from Subsection I have shown that coordinated constructions with one article allow a coordinated antecedent reading only. Since this reading is not available for constructions in which the singular elements differ in gender, we expect these constructions to be unacceptable on any reading. Example (497a) shows that this is indeed the case; example (497b) is, of course, also excluded due to the fact that the non-neuter article de does not agree in gender with the neuter noun meisje'girl'.

Example 497
a. * Een jongen of meisje die/dat zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt korting.
  a boy or girl  who refl has registered  gets  discount
b. * De jongen of meisje die/dat zich heeft ingeschreven, krijgt korting.
  the boy or girl  who refl has registered  gets  discount

      The examples in (498a&b) show that the coordinated antecedent reading is not available for disjunctively coordinated singulars differing in gender in the case of non-restrictive relative clauses. The plural counterparts of these examples in (499a&b) are again acceptable.

Example 498
Coordinated singulars: different genders
a. * Het houden van [een kat of een hondje, die/dat niet veel overlast geeft], is toegestaan.
  the keeping of  a cat or a dogdim  which  not much trouble gives is prt.-allowed
a'. Het houden van een kat of [een hondje, dat niet veel overlast geeft], is toegestaan.
  'The keeping of a cat or a little dog, which doesnʼt give much trouble, is allowed.'
b. * We mogen [de kat of het hondje, die/dat niet veel overlast geeft], houden.
  we may   the cat or the dogdim  which not much trouble gives  keep
b'. We mogen de kat of [het hondje, dat niet veel overlast geeft], houden.
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cat or the little dog, which doesnʼt give much trouble.'
Example 499
Coordinated plurals: different genders
a. Het houden van [katten of honden, die niet veel overlast geven], is toegestaan.
  the keeping of  cats or dogs  which not much trouble give  is prt.-allowed
  'The keeping of cats or dogs, which donʼt give much trouble, is allowed.'
a'. Het houden van katten of [honden, die niet veel overlast geven], is toegestaan.
b. % We mogen [de katten of de honden, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we may  the cats or the dogs  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep the cats or the dogs, which didnʼt give much trouble.'
b'. We mogen de katten of [de honden, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.

Examples (469) and (471) in Subsection I have shown that coordinated constructions with one article allow a coordinated antecedent reading only. Since this reading is not available for constructions in which two singular elements that differ in gender, we expect these constructions to be unacceptable on any reading. As shown in example (500), this turns out to be the case.

Example 500
a. * Het houden van een kat of een hondje, die/dat niet veel overlast geeft, is toegestaan.
  the keeping of  a cat or a dogdim which not much trouble gives,  is prt.-allowed
b. * We mogen de kat of het hondje, die/dat niet veel overlast geeft, houden.
  we may  the cat or the dogdim  which not much trouble gives  keep
[+]  B.  Number

This subsection discusses cases in which the two conjuncts differ in number. We start with restrictive relative clauses. Disjunctive coordination is not possible if the coordinated noun phrases act as the subject of the clause. This has nothing to do with the presence of the relative but with the fact illustrated in (501) that the finite verb of the main clause has to agree with both conjuncts. This holds regardless of the order of the conjuncts, although only one order is given here.

Example 501
a. * [De mannen of de jongen] werden/werd niet toegelaten.
  the men or the boy  were/was  not  prt.-admitted
b. * [Twee mannen of een jongen] werden/werd niet toegelaten.
  two men or a boy  were/was  not  prt.-admitted

If the coordinated noun phrases act as the object of the clause and the relative pronoun as the subject of the relative clause, as in (502), the coordinated antecedent reading is blocked due to the fact that the finite verb of the relative clause must agree in number with both elements of the coordination, thus requiring these elements to have the same number. The primed examples show that a non-coordinated antecedent reading is possible; in that case, the finite verb in the relative clause has to agree with the second conjunct of the coordination only.

Example 502
a. * [De mannen of de jongen die te laat kwamen/kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men or the boy  who too late came/came  let  he  not inside
a'. De mannen of [de jongen die te laat kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men  or the boy  who too late came  let  he  not inside
  'The men or the boy who came too late, he didnʼt let in.'
b. * [Twee mannen of een jongen die te laat kwamen/kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men or a boy  who too late came/came  let  he  not inside
b'. Twee mannen of [een jongen die te laat kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men  or  a boy who too late came/came  let  he  not inside
  'Two men or a boy who came too late, he didnʼt let in.'

Where neither the antecedent nor the relative pronoun functions as subject, the coordinated antecedent reading seems acceptable, although finding the intended interpretation may sometimes be somewhat difficult. This is shown in (503a&b). The non-coordinated antecedent readings, given in (503a'&b'), are also acceptable.

Example 503
a. ? [De mannen of de jongen die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men or the boy  who we not knew  let  he  not inside
a'. De mannen of [de jongen die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.
b. ? [Twee mannen of een jongen die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men or a boy  who we not knew  let  he  not inside
b'. Twee mannen of [de jongen die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.

      Disjunctive coordination of a plural and a singular element modified by a non-restrictive relative clause renders results that are comparable the constructions with restrictive relative clauses discussed in examples (502)-(503), although the acceptable constructions tend to be more marked. This is illustrated in examples (504).

Example 504
a. * [De mannen of de jongen, die te laat kwamen/kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men or the boy  who too late came/came  let  he  not inside
a'. ? De mannen of [de jongen, die te laat kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men  or   the boy who too late came  let  he  not inside
b. * [Twee mannen of een jongen, die te laat kwamen/kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men or a boy  who too late came/came  let  he  not inside
b'. ? Twee mannen of [een jongen, die te laat kwam], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men  or   a boy  who too late came  let  he  not inside
c. ? [Twee mannen of een jongen, die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.
  two men  or  a boy  who we not knew  let  he  not inside
c'. ? Twee mannen of [de jongen, die we niet kenden], liet hij niet binnen.
  the men  or   the boy  who we not knew  let  he  not inside
[+]  C.  Definiteness

With respect to definiteness, restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses pattern alike. If two disjunctively coordinated elements differ with regard to definiteness, only the non-coordinated antecedent reading is available. The coordinated antecedent reading is never possible. The examples in (505) and (506) show that this is true regardless of the function of antecedent in the main clause or the order of the two elements.

Example 505
Restrictive relative clauses with mixed antecedents (w.r.t. definiteness)
a. * We nemen gewoon [een bus of de tram die in de buurt komt].
a'. We nemen gewoon een bus of [de tram die in de buurt komt].
  we  take  simply  a bus  or  the tram  which  close  comes
  'We simply take a bus or the tram which comes near.'
b. * [De student of een scholier die niet zo veel geld heeft], krijgt korting.
b'. De student of [een scholier die weinig geld heeft], krijgt korting.
  the student  or   a pupil  who little money has  gets  discount
  'The student or a pupil who has little money, gets a reduction.'
Example 506
Non-restrictive relative clauses with mixed antecedents (w.r.t. definiteness)
a. * We nemen gewoon [een bus of de tram, die in de buurt komt].
a'. We nemen gewoon een bus of [de tram, die in de buurt komt].
  we  take  simply  a bus  or   the tram  which  close  comes
  'We simply take a bus or the tram, which comes near.'
b. * [De student of een scholier, die niet zo veel geld had], kreeg korting.
b'. De student of [een scholier, die weinig geld had], kreeg korting.
  the student  or  a pupil  who little money has  got  discount
  'The student or a pupil, who has little money, got a reduction.'
[+]  D.  Quantification

The coordinated antecedent reading is only available in limited cases when the conjuncts are quantified. The examples in (507) and the primeless examples in (508) show that this reading is only fully acceptable if the two elements share the quantifier, in which case only the one-set reading is available. The primed examples in (508) show that the non-coordinated reading is possible if the conjuncts are independently quantified.

Example 507
a. [De meeste jongens of meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the most boys or girls  who too late come  are  punished
  'Most boys or girls who are late will be punished.'
b. [Elke student of scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  every student or pupil  who refl has registered  gets discount
  'Every student or pupil who has registered, gets a reduction.'
Example 508
a. ?? [De meeste jongens of sommige meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
  the most boys or some girls  who too late come  are punished
  'Most boys or some girls who are late will be punished.'
a'. De meeste jongens of [sommige meisjes die te laat komen], worden gestraft.
b. ?? [Elke student of een enkele scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.
  every student or a single pupil  who refl has registered  gets discount
  'Every student or a single pupil who has registered, gets a reduction.'
b'. Elke student of [een enkele scholier die zich heeft ingeschreven], krijgt korting.

If a quantified and non-quantified element are coordinated, the two elements cannot form one antecedent, as can be seen in examples (509a&b); these cases only allow the non-coordinated antecedent reading in the primed examples.

Example 509
a. * [De jongens of enkele meisjes die te laat kwamen], werden gestraft.
a'. De jongens of [enkele meisjes die te laat kwamen], werden gestraft.
  the boys  or   some girls  who too late came  were  punished
  'The boys or some girls who were late were punished.'
b. * [Alle leden of de niet-leden die zich hadden ingeschreven], kregen korting.
b'. Alle leden of [de niet-leden die zich hebben ingeschreven], krijgen korting.
  all members  or   the non-members  who  refl  have registered get  discount
  'All members or the non-members who have registered get a reduction.'

      In the case of non-restrictive relativization the coordinated antecedent reading is also possible, although the possibilities are even more restricted than in the case of restrictive relativization. As pointed out in Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub VD, non-restrictive relative clauses are always somewhat marginal with many quantified antecedents. In (510), we therefore only give examples that do allow modification by a non-restrictive relative clause. Example (510a) shows that a coordinated antecedent reading is only fully acceptable if the two elements share the quantifier, in which case we get the one-set reading. Examples (510b&c) show that combinations with different quantifiers exclude the coordinated antecedent reading, but do allow the non-coordinated antecedent reading, in which case we are dealing with a two-set reading.

Example 510
a. We mogen [enkele honden of katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we may  some dogs or cats  which not much trouble give  keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep some dogs or cats, which donʼt give much trouble.'
b. * We mogen [enkele honden of meerdere katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
c. We mogen enkele honden of [meerdere katten, die niet veel overlast geven], houden.
  we may  some dogs  or  various cats  which not much trouble give keep
  'Weʼre allowed to keep some dogs, or various cats, which donʼt give much trouble.'
[+]  V.  Conclusion

The previous subsections have shown that relative clauses that are part of a coordinated noun phrase with the disjunctive coordinator of are three ways ambiguous. The relative clause may be associated with all conjuncts (the coordinated antecedent reading) or with the final conjunct (the non-coordinated antecedent reading). In the first case the ambiguity between inclusive and exclusive of may introduce a further ambiguity between an inclusive (one-set) reading and an exclusive (multiple set) reading. If the coordinated phrase has only a single article, only the inclusive reading is available, whereas the exclusive reading is rather associated with constructions with multiple articles. Since the internal structure of the constructions with of are more or lesss identical to those with the conjunction en, we will not discuss the representation associated with the different readings here, but simply refer the reader to Section 3.3.2.4.2, sub V, for relevant discussion.
      To conclude, we briefly summarize the possible combinations of elements in disjunctively coordinated antecedents. If the two elements differ in gender, the coordinated antecedent reading is only available if these elements are in the plural. Even then, some speakers object to using a restrictive relative clause with coordinated antecedent in which each conjunct contains a definite article. Combinations of two elements differing in number are only acceptable on a coordinated antecedent reading if the antecedent does not function as the subject of the matrix clause and if the relative pronoun is not the subject of the relative clause. As for differences in definiteness, these are not acceptable on a coordinated antecedent reading. If two quantified elements are combined, the coordinated antecedent reading is only fully acceptable in constructions with a single quantifier: if more quantifiers are included, restrictive relative clauses give rise to a marked result; non-restrictive relative clauses give rise to ungrammaticality.

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