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3.1.6. Intransitive adpositions and particles
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Intransitive adpositions allow modification for orientation and distance, as is shown in (76a) and (76b&c), respectively. The modifiers of distance can be amplifiers like ver'far', downtoning adverbs like vlak and pal, or nominal measure phrases like twee meter'two meters'.

Example 76
a. dat hij de bal recht/schuin over schoot.
  that  he  the ball  straight/diagonally  over shot
  'that he shot the ball straight/diagonally over the goal.'
b. dat hij de bal ver/pal/vlak over schoot.
  that  he  the ball  far/close  over  shot
  'that he shot the ball far/right over the goal.'
c. dat hij de bal twee meter naast schoot.
  that  he the ball  two meter  next.to  shot
  'that he shot the ball two meters next to the goal.'

The particle of a particle verb can sometimes also be modified, as is illustrated in (77) for the particle verb voor/achter staan'to be ahead/down'; in (77a), we are dealing with an adjectival modifier, and in (77b) with a nominal measure phrase. Section 1.2.4, sub III, has shown that particles can normally permeate a clause-final verb cluster, but this is no longer possible if the particle is modified; the singly-primed examples show this for cases in which the modifier is pied-piped and the doubly-primed examples for cases in which the modifier is stranded.

Example 77
a. dat hij bij winst ruim voor zal staan.
  that  he  with gain  amply ahead  will  stand
  'that he will be amply ahead, when he wins.'
a'. dat hij bij winst zal (*ruim) voor staan.
a''. dat hij bij winst (??ruim) zal voor staan.
b. dat hij bij verlies twee punten achter zal staan.
  that  he  with loss  two points  behind  will  stand
  'that he will be two points behind, when he loses.'
a'. dat hij bij winst zal (*twee punten) achter staan.
a''. dat hij bij winst (??twee punten) zal achter staan.

As usual, the nominal measure phrase can be extracted from the adpositional phrase by means of wh-movement. In (78a), this is shown for the intransitive adposition naast and in (78b) for the particles voor and achter.

Example 78
a. Hoeveel meter schoot hij de bal naast?
  how.many meters  shot  he  the ball  next.to
  'How many meters did he shoot the ball besides to the goal?'
b. Hoeveel punten staat hij voor/achter?
  how.many points  stands  he  ahead/behind
  'How many points is he ahead/behind?'
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    This topic is the result of an automatic conversion from Word and may therefore contain errors.
    A free Open Access publication of the corresponding volumes of the Syntax of Dutch is available at OAPEN.org.